課程資訊
課程名稱
性質理論
Theories of Property 
開課學期
100-2 
授課對象
文學院  哲學系  
授課教師
彭孟堯 
課號
Phl4835 
課程識別碼
104 47100 
班次
 
學分
全/半年
半年 
必/選修
選修 
上課時間
星期三5,6,7(12:20~15:10) 
上課地點
普403 
備註
本課程中文授課,使用英文教科書。
總人數上限:80人 
Ceiba 課程網頁
http://ceiba.ntu.edu.tw/1002property 
課程簡介影片
 
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課程概述

在西方形上學的傳統裡,自柏拉圖和亞里斯多德起,就已經將事物具有的性質(以及事物之間的關係)理解為「共性」,這種立場甚至可說已經是「定型」了。承認共性存在的存有論稱為「實在論」,否則稱為「唯名論」。
實在論雖承認「共性」的存在,對於「共性」卻有不同的理解,亦即共性可理解為「柏拉圖式」的,也可理解為「亞里斯多德式」的。本門課會說明兩者的差異。無論如何,實在論認為,承認共性的存在可以說明以下三點:(1)承認「共性」的存在,可以解釋兩個事物如何具有相同的特徵,例如相同的顏色、相同的形狀;(2)「共性」可以作為述詞的意義,或者作為抽象單詞的指涉;(3)承認「共性」的存在,可以解釋自然法則,亦即主張自然法則是介於共性之間的關係。
唯名論是反實在論的立場。唯名論的派別很多,例如class nominalism、predicate nominalism、concept nominalism、resemblance nominalism。本門課會逐一介紹這些唯名論的立場,並說明:
(1)這些反實在論的學說如何回答上述三個問題;(2)這些學說會面臨的理論困難。在二十世紀新興起一種反實在論的立場,與傳統的唯名論有別,稱為「殊性存有論」。這套學說否認共性、主張性質是個殊的、並且對於上述三個問題提供了一套解決方式。依據阿姆斯壯的分析,這是唯一能夠與實在論相競爭的理論。本門課因此亦會對這套學說做一些介紹。
上述討論的「性質」主要都是關於事物本身擁有的特徵。本門課最後將補充介紹五個邏輯性質:等同、存在、謂述、必然、真。
The tradition of Western metaphysics, specifically the tradition established by Plato and Aristotle, understands the properties (and relations) had by individual objects as universals. One may even say that this is the default ontological position with regard to properties. The position that admits of universals is called "realism", whilest the position that denies universals is traditionally called "nominalism".
Although realism admits of universals, there are different understandings. Some realists think that universals are Platonic (or transcendent), others think that universals are Aristotelian (or immanent). This course will explain the difference.
Putting aside the difference, realism thinks that the positing of universals can explain the following three things: (1) the positing of universals can explain how two objects are the same in some respect, e.g., they have the same color, or the same shape, or the same size. (2) Universals are the meanings of predicates or are the references of abstract singular terms. (3) The positing of universals help understand the nature of natural laws, i.e., universals are the relata of nomological relations.
Nominalism is an anti-realist position. There are several versions of nominalism, e.g., class nominalism, predicate nominalism, concept nominalism, resemblance nominalism. This course will explain what these doctrines claim and explain (1) how these nominalist doctrines answer the above three questions and (2) what theoretical difficulties they have.
In the twentieth century, a new anti-realist approach, viz., the trope ontology, emerges. It denies the reality of universals, takes properties to be particulars, and offers yet another set of answers to the above questions. According to Armstrong, trope ontology is the only anti-realism that is competitive with his realism.
The above disscussions all surround ordinary properties had by objects. We shall briefly explore five logical properties near the end of the semester: Identity, Existence, Predication, Necessity, and truth. 

課程目標
引導學生熟悉關於「性質」的形上學議題和爭論。
To introduces students to the metaphysical issues and debates concerning properties had by individual objects. 
課程要求
 
預期每週課後學習時數
 
Office Hours
每週五 13:30~14:30
每週一 13:30~14:30 備註: 可email另行約定時間 
參考書目
Armstrong, D.M. (1989), Universals: An Opinionated Introduction. Cambridge UP.
Mellor, D.H. & Oliver, A. (Eds.)(1997), Properties. Oxford.
McGinn, C. (2001), Logical Properties. Oxford UP.
 
指定閱讀
 
評量方式
(僅供參考)
 
No.
項目
百分比
說明
1. 
研究報告 
35% 
書面研究報告之內容應以問題為導向來進行的文獻探討,而不是讀書摘要,更不是讀書心得。 每份書面研究報告4 – 8頁,請以電腦打字,使用12點字細明體,24點之行距(手寫者請字跡工整)。 
2. 
研究論文 
50% 
題目自訂,唯須先經同意。研究論文須參考本門課未閱讀之論文至少3篇。 研究論文12 –15頁,請以電腦打字,使用12點字細明體,24點之行距(手寫者請字跡工整)。 3. (自選)對於研究論文之大要進行口頭報告,30分鐘,討論20分鐘。此項可取代「研究論文」的1/2成績。 
3. 
討論與參與 
15% 
 
 
課程進度
週次
日期
單元主題
第1週
2/22  Introduction Armstrong, Chap. 1, 5 
第2週
2/29  Armstrong, Chap. 1, 5 
第3週
3/07  Armstrong, Chap. 2, 3 
第4週
3/14  Armstrong, Chap. 2, 3 
第5週
3/21  Jackson, "Statements about Universals", in MO 
第6週
3/28  Devitt, "'Ostrich Nominalism' or 'Mirage Realism'", in MO 
第7週
4/04  Armstrong, "Against 'Ostrich' Nominalism, in MO 
第8週
4/11  Armstrong, Chap. 6
Armstrong, "Properties", in MO 
第9週
4/18  Williams, "On the Elements of Being: I", in MO
Campbell, "The Metaphysics of Abstract Particulars", in MO 
第10週
4/25  Campbell, "The Metaphysics of Abstract Particulars", in MO
Daly, "Trope", in MO 
第11週
5/02  Daly, "Trope", in MO 
第12週
5/09  Lewis, "Modal Realism at Work", in MO 
第13週
5/16  Lewis, "New Work for a Theory of Universals", in MO 
第14週
5/23  Mellor, "Properties and Predicates", in MO 
第15週
5/30  McGinn, Chap. 1, 2 
第16週
6/06  McGinn, Chap. 2, 3 
第17週
6/13  McGinn, Chap. 4, 5