課程資訊
課程名稱
個體與共相討論
Seminar on Particulars and Universals 
開課學期
102-1 
授課對象
文學院  哲學研究所  
授課教師
鄧敦民 
課號
Phl7758 
課程識別碼
124EM7320 
班次
 
學分
全/半年
半年 
必/選修
選修 
上課時間
星期四3,4,@(10:20~) 
上課地點
哲研討室三 
備註
本課程以英語授課。B領域。
總人數上限:15人 
Ceiba 課程網頁
http://ceiba.ntu.edu.tw/1021universals 
課程簡介影片
 
核心能力關聯
核心能力與課程規劃關聯圖
課程大綱
為確保您我的權利,請尊重智慧財產權及不得非法影印
課程概述

This course aims to introduce students to the central debates in ontology concerning the categories of universals and of particulars. The course will be divided into five units. In Unit One we shall set the stage by going through some discussions in the early analytic philosophy, including Frege, Russell, Ramsey and Strawson. Amongst these views, Ramsey’s argument against the universal-particular distinction will be further examined in Unit Two, as it can be one of the motivations for postulating the category of tropes. In Unit Three, we shall turn to Quine’s nominalism and his criterion of ontological commitment, which was a very influential view dominating for quite a long time. But from the 80s, realism was gradually regaining its popularity under the influence of two important figures: D. M. Armstrong and David Lewis. We shall examine their works in Unit Four. In the final unit, we shall discuss Shoemaker’s and Mellor’s ‘causal’ approaches. 

課程目標
Students will be expected to

(1) Understand the debate between realism and nominalism about universals
(2) Understand the philosophical motivations for the ontology of tropes
 
課程要求
Each week, a paper in the selected topic will be discussed in the class. Each student is required to introduce at least one paper during the course and present his own comments on it. But all students are required to read the assigned paper in advance and write a two-page summary each week. By the end of the course students are required to submit a term paper (not more than 5000 words). 
預期每週課後學習時數
 
Office Hours
 
參考書目
D. H. Mellor and A. Oliver, eds. (1997), Properties, Oxford: University Press.
D. M. Armstrong (1989), Universals: An Opinionated Introduction, Boulder: Westview.
Fraser MacBride (2009), ‘Universals: The Contemporary Debate’, in R. Le Poidevin, et al., eds., The Routledge Companion to Metaphysics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 276-85.
 
指定閱讀
 
評量方式
(僅供參考)
   
課程進度
週次
日期
單元主題
第1週
9/12  The Fregean ‘concepts’;
Text: G. Frege (1891), ‘Function and Concept’, in Mellor, D. H. and Oliver, A., eds. (1997), Properties, Oxford: University Press, pp.34-44.
 
第2週
9/19  Moon Festival (holiday) 
第3週
9/26  Russell’s theory of universals;
Text: Russell (1912), The Problems of Philosophy, (Repr. OUP 1997), chs. 9-10
 
第4週
10/03  Ramsey on the contrast between particulars and universals;
Text: F. P. Ramsey (1925), ‘Universals’, Mind, 34: 401-417
 
第5週
10/10  The National Day (holiday) 
第6週
10/17  Responses to Ramsey;
Texts: P. F. Strawson (1959), Individuals: An Essay in Descriptive Metaphysics, London: Methuen, Ch. 5
P. Simons (1991), ‘Ramsey, Particulars and Universals’, Theoria, 57: 150-61 
第7週
10/24  The particular-universal distinction;
Text: F. MacBride (2005), ‘The Particular-Universal Distinction: A Dogma of Metaphysics?’ Mind, 114: 565-614.
 
第8週
10/31  Theory of Tropes (I):
Text: D. C. Williams (1953), ‘On the Elements of Being’, Review of Metaphysics, 7: 3-18
 
第9週
11/07  Theory of Tropes (II):
Text: Keith Campbell (1981), ‘The Metaphysics of Abstract Particulars’, Midwest Studies in Philosophy, Foundations of Analytic Philosophy, 6: 477-78
 
第10週
11/14  Quine’s nominalism;
Text: Quine (1948), ‘On What There Is’, Review of Metaphysics, 2: 21-28
 
第11週
11/21  Defence for the Quinean nominalism;
Text: M. Devitt (1980), ‘Ostrich Nominalism or Mirage Realism’, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 61: 433-39; Reprinted in D.H. Mellor and A. Oliver, eds., Properties (OUP 1997), pp. 93-100
 
第12週
11/28  Criticisms of the Quinean view;
Text: Armstrong (1980), ‘Against “Ostrich Nominalism”: A Reply to Devitt’, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 61: 440-49; Reprinted in D.H. Mellor and A. Oliver, eds., Properties (OUP 1997), pp. 101-11
 
第13週
12/05  Armstrong’s theory of universals;
Text: Armstrong (1989), Universals: An Opinionated Introduction, Boulder: Westview
 
第14週
12/12  Lewis’s modal realism;
Text: David Lewis (1986), On the Plurality of Worlds, Oxford: Blackwell, sect 1.5
 
第15週
12/19  Lewis’s later view;
Text: David Lewis (1983), ‘New Work for a Theory of Universals’, Australasian Journal of Philosophy, 61: 343-77
 
第16週
12/26  Shoemaker’s causal theory of properties;
Text: Sydney Shoemaker (1980), ‘Causality and Properties’, in Peter van Inwagen, ed., Time and Cause D. Reidel; reprinted in D.H. Mellor and A. Oliver, eds., Properties (OUP 1997), pp.228-54
 
第17週
1/02  Causality, properties, and predicates;
D. H. Mellor (1993), ‘Properties and Predicates’, in Bacon, Campbell and Reinhardt, eds., Ontology, Causality and Mind: Essay in Honour of D.M. Armstrong, 101-113; reprinted in D.H. Mellor and A. Oliver, eds., Properties (OUP 1997), pp.255-67