Topics in Philosophy of Mind:Body and Subjectivity 
文學院  哲學研究所  
124 M7400 
Ceiba 課程網頁

This course is an advanced discussion on the relation between body and subjectivity. A substantial background is required. Students are expected to have taken graduate courses「Consciousness」and/or「Self-consciousness」before. First, we try to distinguish between body ownership and experiential ownership. Body ownership concerns whether a body part or a full body is experienced as belonging to me. Experiential ownership concerns whether I represent myself as the unique subject of an experience. Both reveal important types of subjectivity. Then, four issues will be considered throughout the course: (1) the relationship between body-part and full-body ownership, (2) the relationship between agency and body ownership, (3) the relationship between body ownership and experiential ownership, and (4) the relationship between reflective and pre-reflective self-consciousness. We will discuss both philosophical and neuroscientific research papers, and we will try to conduct experiments to do first-hand research.

這是一門研究「身體與主體性」的高階討論課。選課同學應先修過「意識」或「自我意識」等課程。首先,我們將嘗試區分「身體歸屬性」與「經驗歸屬性」。前者是關於我是否將某一肢體或整個身體感受成自己的,後前者是關於我是否將自己表徵為某個經驗的當事者。此二者均展現出重要類型的主體性。接著,我們將探討四項議題:(1) 「部分肢體的歸屬性」與「全身的歸屬性」之間的關係,(2)「主動性」與「身體歸屬性」之間的關係,(3) 「身體歸屬性」與「經驗歸屬性」之間的關係,以及(4)「反思的自我意識」與「前反思的自我意識」之間的關係。我們將討論相關的哲學作品與腦神經科學的論文,也會嘗試進行實驗來做第一手的研究。

Office Hours
1. Blanke, O., Multisensory brain mechanisms of bodily self-consciousness. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2012, 13, 556-571.
2. Bottini, G., Bisiach, E., Sterzi, R., & Vallar, G., Feeling touches in someone else’s hand. NeuroReport, 2002, 13(11), 249-252.
3. Buckner, R., Andrews-Hanna, J., & Schacter, D., The Brain’s Default Network: Anatomy, Function, and Relevance to Disease. Annals of New York Academy of Sciences, 2008, 1124, 1-38.
4. Craig, A. D., How do you feel—now? The anterior insula and human awareness. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2009, 10, 59-70.
5. Damasio, A., Self Comes to Mind, Pantheon, 2010.
6. D’Argembeau, A., Ruby, P., Collette, F., Degueldre, C., Balteau, E., Luxen, A., Maquet, P., & Salmon, E. Distinct Regions of the Medial Prefrontal Cortex Are Associated with Self-referential Processing and Perspective Taking. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 2007, 19(6), 935-944.
7. Ehrsson, H., The Concept of Body Ownership and Its Relation to Multisensory Integration. In B. Stein (Ed), The New Handbook of Multisensory Processing. MIT Press, 2012, 775-792.
8. Gillihan, S. J., & Farah, M. J., Is Self Special? A Critical Review of Evidence From Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience. Psychological Bulletin, 2005, 131(1), 76-97.
9. Gusnard, D. A., Being a self: Considerations from functional imaging. Consciousness and Cognition, 2005, 14, 679-697.
10. Ionta, S., Gassert, R., & Blanke, O., Multi-sensory and sensorimotor foundation of bodily self- consciousness—an interdisciplinary approach, Frontiers in Psychology, 2011, Vol. 2, Article 383, 1-8.
11. Kanayama, N., Sato, A., & Ohira, H., The role of gamma band oscillations and synchrony on rubber hand illusion and crossmodal integration. Brain and Cognition, 2009, 69, 19-29.
12. Legrand, D. Phenomenological Dimensions of Bodily Self-Consciousness. In S. Gallagher (Ed.), Oxford Handbook of the Self (pp. 204-227). Oxford, 2011.
13. Legrand, D., & Ruby, P. What is Self-Specific? Theoretical Investigation and Critical Review of Neuroimaging Results. Psychological Review, 2009, 116(1), 252-282.
14. Lenggenhager, B., Tadi, T., Metzinger, T., & Blanke, O., Video Ergo Sum: Manipulating Bodily Self-Consciousness. Science, 2007, 317, 1096-1099.
15. Lenggenhager, B., Halje, P., & Blanke, O., Alpha and oscillations correlate with illusory self-location induced by virtual reality. European Journal of Neuroscience, 2011, 33, 1935-1943.
16. Lou, H. C., Gross, J., Biermann-Ruben, K., Kjaer, T. W., & Schnitzler, A., Coherence in Consciousness: Paralimbic Gamma Synchrony of Self-Reference Links Conscious Experiences. Human Brain Mapping, 2010, 31, 185-192.
17. Moro, V., Zampini, M., & Aglioti, S. M., Changes in Spatial Position of Hands Modify Tactile Extinction but not Disownership of Contralesional Hand in Two Right Brain-Damaged Patients. Neurocase, 2004,10(6), 437-443.
18. Northoff, G., Qin, P., & Feinberg, T., Brain imaging of the self—Conceptual, anatomical and methodological issues. Consciousness and Cognition, 2011, 20: 52-63.
19. Panksepp, J. & Northoff, G., The trans-species core SELF: The emergence of active cultural and neuro-ecological agents through self-related processing within subcortical-cortical midline networks. Consciousness and Cognition, 2009, 18, 193-215.
20. Petkova, V., & Ehrsson, H., If I were You: Perceptual Illusion of Body Swapping. PLoS ONE 3(12): e3832. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003832, 2008.
21. Qin, P., Di, H., Liu, Y., Yu, Senming, Gong, Q., Duncan, N., Weng, X., Laureys, S., & Northoff, G. Anterior Cingulate Activity and the Self in Disorders of Consciousness. Human Brain Mapping, 2010, 31, 1993-2002.
22. Qin, P., & Northoff, G., How is our self related to midline regions and the default-mode network? NeuroImage, 2011, 57, 1221-1233.
23. Raichle, M., MacLeod, A., Snyder, A., Powers, W., Gusnard, D., & Shulman, G., A default mode of brain function. PNAS, 2001, 98(2), 676-682.
24. Serino, A., Alsmith, A., Costantini, M., Mandrigin, A., Tajadura-Jimenex, A., & Lopez, C., Bodily ownership and self-location: Components of bodily self-consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition, 2013, 22, 1239-1252.
25. Shoemaker, S., The First-Person Perspective and Other Essays. Cambridge University Press, 1996.
26. Uhlhass, P., Pipa, G., Lima, B., Melloni, Lucia, Neuenschwander, S., Nikoli?, D., & Singer, W., Neural synchrony in cortical networks: history, concept and current status. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 2009, 3, Article 17, 1-19.
27. Vallar, G., & Ronchi, R., Somatoparaphrenia: a body delusion. A review of the neuropsychological literature. Experimental Brain Research, 2009, 192, 533-551.
28. Vignemont, F. de, Bodily awareness. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2011.
29. Vignemont, F. de, Bodily immunity to error. In Prosser & Recanati (Eds.), Immunity to Error through Misidentification. Cambridge, 2012, 224-246.
30. Zahavi, D., Subjectivity and Selfhood. MIT Press, 2005.
Readings will be selected from the list in the next section.