課程資訊
課程名稱
心智哲學專題:身體與主體性
Topics in Philosophy of Mind:Body and Subjectivity 
開課學期
106-2 
授課對象
文學院  哲學研究所  
授課教師
梁益堉 
課號
Phl7764 
課程識別碼
124 M7400 
班次
 
學分
3.0 
全/半年
半年 
必/選修
選修 
上課時間
星期四7,8,9(14:20~17:20) 
上課地點
哲研討室二 
備註
本課程中文授課,使用英文教科書。E領域。
總人數上限:15人 
Ceiba 課程網頁
http://ceiba.ntu.edu.tw/1062Phl7764_bodysubj 
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課程概述

這是一門研究「身體與主體性」的討論課與實驗課。首先,我們將嘗試區分「身體歸屬性」與「經驗歸屬性」。前者是關於我是否將某一肢體或整個身體感受成自己的,後前者是關於我是否將自己表徵為某個經驗的當事者。此二者均展現出重要類型的主體性。接著,我們將探討四項議題:(1) 「部分肢體的歸屬性」與「全身的歸屬性」之間的關係,(2)「主動性」與「身體歸屬性」之間的關係,(3) 「身體歸屬性」與「經驗歸屬性」之間的關係,以及(4)「反思的自我意識」與「前反思的自我意識」之間的關係。我們將討論相關的哲學作品與腦神經科學的論文,也會嘗試進行實驗來做第一手的研究。 

課程目標
本課程有三項目標:第一,能瞭解身體與主體性之相關問題。第二,學習如何仔細閱讀哲學與科學作品,並練習使寫作更為清晰。第三,對於一些重要議題能發展出自己的想法。 
課程要求
學生除了得花功夫研讀困難的哲學作品,在上課時參與討論,評估各種立場的論證,也需要在作業中提出自己的觀點,並加以辯護。 
預期每週課後學習時數
 
Office Hours
 
參考書目
1. Blanke, O., Multisensory brain mechanisms of bodily self-consciousness. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2012, 13, 556-571.
2. Bottini, G., Bisiach, E., Sterzi, R., & Vallar, G., Feeling touches in someone else’s hand. NeuroReport, 2002, 13(11), 249-252.
3. Buckner, R., Andrews-Hanna, J., & Schacter, D., The Brain’s Default Network: Anatomy, Function, and Relevance to Disease. Annals of New York Academy of Sciences, 2008, 1124, 1-38.
4. Craig, A. D., How do you feel—now? The anterior insula and human awareness. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2009, 10, 59-70.
5. Damasio, A., Self Comes to Mind, Pantheon, 2010.
6. D’Argembeau, A., Ruby, P., Collette, F., Degueldre, C., Balteau, E., Luxen, A., Maquet, P., & Salmon, E. Distinct Regions of the Medial Prefrontal Cortex Are Associated with Self-referential Processing and Perspective Taking. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 2007, 19(6), 935-944.
7. Ehrsson, H., The Concept of Body Ownership and Its Relation to Multisensory Integration. In B. Stein (Ed), The New Handbook of Multisensory Processing. MIT Press, 2012, 775-792.
8. Gillihan, S. J., & Farah, M. J., Is Self Special? A Critical Review of Evidence From Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience. Psychological Bulletin, 2005, 131(1), 76-97.
9. Gusnard, D. A., Being a self: Considerations from functional imaging. Consciousness and Cognition, 2005, 14, 679-697.
10. Ionta, S., Gassert, R., & Blanke, O., Multi-sensory and sensorimotor foundation of bodily self- consciousness—an interdisciplinary approach, Frontiers in Psychology, 2011, Vol. 2, Article 383, 1-8.
11. Kanayama, N., Sato, A., & Ohira, H., The role of gamma band oscillations and synchrony on rubber hand illusion and crossmodal integration. Brain and Cognition, 2009, 69, 19-29.
12. Legrand, D. Phenomenological Dimensions of Bodily Self-Consciousness. In S. Gallagher (Ed.), Oxford Handbook of the Self (pp. 204-227). Oxford, 2011.
13. Legrand, D., & Ruby, P. What is Self-Specific? Theoretical Investigation and Critical Review of Neuroimaging Results. Psychological Review, 2009, 116(1), 252-282.
14. Lenggenhager, B., Tadi, T., Metzinger, T., & Blanke, O., Video Ergo Sum: Manipulating Bodily Self-Consciousness. Science, 2007, 317, 1096-1099.
15. Lenggenhager, B., Halje, P., & Blanke, O., Alpha and oscillations correlate with illusory self-location induced by virtual reality. European Journal of Neuroscience, 2011, 33, 1935-1943.
16. Lou, H. C., Gross, J., Biermann-Ruben, K., Kjaer, T. W., & Schnitzler, A., Coherence in Consciousness: Paralimbic Gamma Synchrony of Self-Reference Links Conscious Experiences. Human Brain Mapping, 2010, 31, 185-192.
17. Moro, V., Zampini, M., & Aglioti, S. M., Changes in Spatial Position of Hands Modify Tactile Extinction but not Disownership of Contralesional Hand in Two Right Brain-Damaged Patients. Neurocase, 2004,10(6), 437-443.
18. Northoff, G., Qin, P., & Feinberg, T., Brain imaging of the self—Conceptual, anatomical and methodological issues. Consciousness and Cognition, 2011, 20: 52-63.
19. Panksepp, J. & Northoff, G., The trans-species core SELF: The emergence of active cultural and neuro-ecological agents through self-related processing within subcortical-cortical midline networks. Consciousness and Cognition, 2009, 18, 193-215.
20. Petkova, V., & Ehrsson, H., If I were You: Perceptual Illusion of Body Swapping. PLoS ONE 3(12): e3832. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003832, 2008.
21. Qin, P., Di, H., Liu, Y., Yu, Senming, Gong, Q., Duncan, N., Weng, X., Laureys, S., & Northoff, G. Anterior Cingulate Activity and the Self in Disorders of Consciousness. Human Brain Mapping, 2010, 31, 1993-2002.
22. Qin, P., & Northoff, G., How is our self related to midline regions and the default-mode network? NeuroImage, 2011, 57, 1221-1233.
23. Raichle, M., MacLeod, A., Snyder, A., Powers, W., Gusnard, D., & Shulman, G., A default mode of brain function. PNAS, 2001, 98(2), 676-682.
24. Serino, A., Alsmith, A., Costantini, M., Mandrigin, A., Tajadura-Jimenex, A., & Lopez, C., Bodily ownership and self-location: Components of bodily self-consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition, 2013, 22, 1239-1252.
25. Shoemaker, S., The First-Person Perspective and Other Essays. Cambridge University Press, 1996.
26. Uhlhass, P., Pipa, G., Lima, B., Melloni, Lucia, Neuenschwander, S., Nikoli?, D., & Singer, W., Neural synchrony in cortical networks: history, concept and current status. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 2009, 3, Article 17, 1-19.
27. Vallar, G., & Ronchi, R., Somatoparaphrenia: a body delusion. A review of the neuropsychological literature. Experimental Brain Research, 2009, 192, 533-551.
28. Vignemont, F. de, Bodily awareness. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2011.
29. Vignemont, F. de, Bodily immunity to error. In Prosser & Recanati (Eds.), Immunity to Error through Misidentification. Cambridge, 2012, 224-246.
30. Zahavi, D., Subjectivity and Selfhood. MIT Press, 2005. 
指定閱讀
指定閱讀將從以下參考書目中所列的期刊論文選讀。  
評量方式
(僅供參考)
 
No.
項目
百分比
說明
1. 
Discussion  
30% 
 
2. 
Presentation  
30% 
 
3. 
Final Paper  
40% 
 
 
課程進度
週次
日期
單元主題
第1週
3/01  Introduction: body and subjectivity 
第2週
3/08  Pilot study 1 in NeuroPhilosophy Lab  
第3週
3/15  Rubber hand illusion & Full-body illusions <br><br>


1. Botvinick, M., and Cohen, J. (1998). Rubber hands 'feel' touch that eyes see. Nature, 391(6669), 756. 予瑭<br><br>

2. Lenggenhager, B., Tadi, T., Metzinger, T., and Blanke, O. (2007). Video ergo sum: manipulating bodily self-consciousness. Science, 317(5841), 1096-1099. 同舟<br><br>

3. Ehrsson, H. H. (2007). The experimental induction of out-of-body experiences. Science, 317(5841), 1048. 洪偉
 
第4週
3/22  Philosophical interpretation<br><br>

1. Blanke, O., and Metzinger, T. (2009). Full-body illusions and minimal phenomenal selfhood. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13, 7-13. 同舟、予瑭<br><br>

2. Legrand, D. (2010). Myself with No Body? Body, Bodily-Consciousness and Self-consciousness. In Handbook of Phenomenology and Cognitive Science, 180-200. Springer Netherlands. 洪偉、紹安
 
第5週
3/29  Body swap and the first-person perspective<br><br>

1. Petkova, V. I., and Ehrsson, H. H. (2008). If I were you: perceptual illusion of body swapping. PLoS One, 3(12), e3832.<br><br>

2. Petkova, V et al. (2011). The perspective matters! Multisensory integration in ego-centric reference frames determines full-body ownership. Frontiers in Psychology, 2(35), 2. <br><br>

3. Heydrich, L. et al. (2013). Visual capture and the experience of having two bodies–Evidence from two different virtual reality techniques. Frontiers in psychology, 4.
 
第6週
4/05  春假 
第7週
4/12  Pilot study 2 in NeuroPhilosophy Lab  
第8週
4/19  Virtual reality & body ownership<br><br>

1. Sanchez-Vives, M. V., & Slater, M. (2005). From presence to consciousness through virtual reality. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6(4), 332.<br><br>

2. Pomés, A., & Slater, M. (2013). Drift and ownership toward a distant virtual body. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 7, 908.<br><br>

3. Spanlang, B., Normand, J. M., Borland, D., Kilteni, K., Giannopoulos, ... & Slater, M. (2014). How to build an embodiment lab: achieving body representation illusions in virtual reality. Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 1, 9.
 
第9週
4/26  Pilot study 3 in NeuroPhilosophy Lab 
第10週
5/03  Group meeting & Group presentation  
第11週
5/10  Virtual reality & body ownership<br><br>

1. Maselli, A., & Slater, M. (2013). The building blocks of the full body ownership illusion. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 7, 83.<br><br>

2. Maselli, A., and Slater, M. (2014). Sliding perspectives: dissociating ownership from self-location during full body illusions in virtual reality. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8:693, 1-19.<br><br>

3. Kilteni, K., Maselli, A., Kording, K. P., & Slater, M. (2015). Over my fake body: body ownership illusions for studying the multisensory basis of own-body perception. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 9, 141.
 
第12週
5/17  Pilot study 4 in NeuroPhilosophy Lab 
第13週
5/24  Virtual reality & body ownership<br><br>

1. Kokkinara, E., Kilteni, K., Blom, K. J., & Slater, M. (2016). First person perspective of seated participants over a walking virtual body leads to illusory agency over the walking. Scientific reports, 6, 28879.<br><br>

2. Bergström, I., Kilteni, K., & Slater, M. (2016). First-person perspective virtual body posture influences stress: a virtual reality body ownership study. PloS one, 11(2), e0148060.<br><br>

3. Bourdin, P., Barberia, I., Oliva, R., & Slater, M. (2017). A virtual out-of-body experience reduces fear of death. PloS one, 12(1), e0169343.
 
第14週
5/31  Group meeting & Group presentation  
第15週
6/07  Pilot study 5 in NeuroPhilosophy Lab 
第16週
6/14  Group meeting & Group presentation  
第17週
6/21  Second presentation - Last Class

6/28 Final Paper due!