課程資訊
課程名稱
邏輯哲學專題
Topics in the Philosophy of Logic 
開課學期
110-1 
授課對象
文學院  哲學研究所  
授課教師
楊金穆 
課號
Phl7001 
課程識別碼
124 M7470 
班次
 
學分
3.0 
全/半年
半年 
必/選修
選修 
上課時間
星期四7,8,9(14:20~17:20) 
上課地點
哲研討室二 
備註
本課程中文授課,使用英文教科書。研究所:C、E領域。 大學部:(C)哲學專題群組。
總人數上限:15人 
Ceiba 課程網頁
http://ceiba.ntu.edu.tw/1101Phl7001_2021 
課程簡介影片
 
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課程概述

Ever since the establishment of new logic (to be distinguished from the old fashion of Aristotelian Syllogism) in the late nineteenth century (thanks to Frege, Cantor, Boole and some others), and its development in the first half of the twentieth century (thanks to Peano, Russell, Zermelo, Hilbert, Tarski, Gödel, Turing, Church, etc.), logic has had a strong and significant impact on the investigation of contemporary philosophy, in particular the so-called Anglo-American philosophy or analytic philosophy. In the heyday of logical positivism (from the late 1920 to1950), it was widely taken for granted that philosophical investigation should take logic as the guiding principle, or even the tribunal for the philosophical debates. This is partly because one of the primary concerns of Frege’s establishment of new logic is to establish a much more solid foundation of mathematics in that all mathematical propositions can be reformulated in a language suitable for logic and all mathematical truths can be proved in such a logical system. (This is why, sometimes, the alleged new logic is sometimes referred to as symbolic logic or mathematical logic.) Another main reason can be also traced back to Frege, which has something to do with the so-called linguistic turn. Frege’s original idea is to deal with the meaning of a singular term such as the numeral ‘0’ (for the number 0) by asking the sense of a sentence/proposition in which the very term occurs, rather than simply asking what it is to which the term refers. To generalize this approach, it is claimed that all philosophical issues/problems can be and should be dealt with by analysing the construction of the related sentences and their meanings. Perhaps it is this approach which paved a way to the flourishing movement of analytic philosophy in the 20th century. As a result, the so-called contemporary philosophy has almost dominated by the philosophy of language, together with a general scope of the study of logic.
After the 1950’s, the impact of logic on the investigation of philosophy becomes more and more prominent, thanks to Wittgenstein, Carnap, Quine, and Kripke. More and more distinguished logicians have devoted themselves to a large number of philosophical issues. It has then become a natural inclination for philosophers and logicians of this type to pay their attention not only to the construction of formal logical systems (including the language in use, the establishment of appropriate semantics and the formalization of deductive systems), but also to its philosophical significance and impact on traditional philosophical issues.
Yet, no sharp boundary could be drawn between the scopes of these two aspects of logical study. Surprisingly, with the profound and ramified interaction amongst logic and some notable philosophical issues, it is realized that perhaps we need to re-examine the nature of logic and its scope, including the well-known, and perhaps widely accepted, logical concepts, such as propositions, logical consequence, truth, the meaning of logical constants, modality, etc. A serious study of the philosophical aspect of logic is nowadays entitled the philosophy of logic.
In a strict sense, the primary concern of philosophy of logic is with a more rigorous investigation into the nature of logical concepts, their philosophical implication and the application of logic to philosophical questions/problems. An introductory course for such study thus focuses on a variety of logical concepts (including syntactic and semantic), and related philosophical presuppositions/significance, both metaphysically and epistemologic- ally. It should be noted that the main concern of philosophy of logic is not a study of logic on its own, nor a study about logic. Rather, the title ‘the philosophy of logic’ is used merely to serve as a unifying label to signify a field of philosophical investigation, which at the core involves a family of logical concepts, and a variety of topics related to certain logical concepts, which have been the centre of traditional philosophical disputes, especially in metaphysics and epistemology, such as the notion of a proposition, truths, modality, vagueness, propositional attitudes, . . . , etc.
Interestingly, these topics are closely interdependent and interrelated in that brief discussions on issues concerning any one of these topics require understanding, to a certain level, of some others. Moreover, with respect to each topic, there are always a great number of different views; and none has ever enjoyed a dominant role. As a consequence, it has been a really tough job for students to grasp what these concepts are supposed to mean and what the genuine problems surrounding these topics are.
It is noteworthy that sometimes the aforementioned concepts and topics can be found in the scope of another branch of logical/philosophical study, known as philosophical logic. Although the boundary line between philosophy of logic and philosophical logic is to a certain extent not always clear. However, the following contrast seems to be widely accepted:
• Philosophy of logic is devoted to examining the scope and nature of logic, and the investigation with conceptual analysis with regard to the philosophical issues arising in logic, such as the notion of proposition, the meaning of logical connectives, logical consequence, quantification, to mention a few.
• Philosophical logic is concerned with the application of formal logical techniques, especially the so-called non-classical logic, to metaphysical/epistemological issues/problems, such as reference, identity, predication, existence, modality, and vagueness, etc.
[Still, one may find some topics in common such as truth, modality, vagueness, etc.]
An introductory course, wherein related topics are briefly mentioned, discussed, and dealt with, would be helpful. Of course, no such a course could exhaust all topics involved, let alone the depth of such an enquiry. In this course we shall only examine a variety of logical concepts, as shown in the contents, which are involved in the construction of logic at the elementary level, and their philosophical implications.


 

課程目標
The main objectives of this course are:
1.To study the meaning of fundamental concepts involved in formal logic (in particular, those which we have studied in the elementary course), and the related problems.
2.To study philosophically the construction of formal systems.
3.To investigate the philosophical impact of the development of formal logic in the last century (from 1879 to the 1970s)
 
課程要求
Every week, an essay (or a chapter in a book) will be assigned. In each class time, a student should be in charge of giving a presentation (about 30 minutes with regard to the weekly assigned essay, and all other students should send me by email a summary (about 2-4 pages) of the weekly assigned essay. By the end of semester, a long essay (about 4000 words, i.e., 14 pages in A4 size) is required. 
預期每週課後學習時數
 
Office Hours
 
參考書目
Read, S. Thinking about Logic: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Logic, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Hale, B. and Wright, C. A Companion to the Philosophy of Language, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1997.
Gale, R. M. ed., The Blackwell Guide to Metaphysics, Oxford: Blackwell, 2002.
Grayling, A. C. An Introduction to Philosophical Logic, 3rd edition, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1997.
Engel, P. The Norm of Truth: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Logic, New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1991. 
指定閱讀
Read, S. Thinking about Logic: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Logic, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Hale, B. and Wright, C. A Companion to the Philosophy of Language, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1997.
Gale, R. M. ed., The Blackwell Guide to Metaphysics, Oxford: Blackwell, 2002.
Grayling, A. C. An Introduction to Philosophical Logic, 3rd edition, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1997.
Engel, P. The Norm of Truth: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Logic, New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1991.
 
評量方式
(僅供參考)
 
No.
項目
百分比
說明
1. 
Long essay 
40% 
 
2. 
Weekly assignment 
30% 
 
3. 
Class contribution 
30% 
 
 
課程進度
週次
日期
單元主題
第1週
9/23  Introduction: Aristotelian logic, the development of formal logic and Anglo-American philosophy in the 20th Century (Introduction and Appendix A) 
第2週
9/30  Introduction: Aristotelian logic, the development of formal logic and Anglo-American philosophy in the 20th Century (Introduction and Appendix A) 
第3週
10/07  Introduction: Aristotelian logic, the development of formal logic and Anglo-American philosophy in the 20th Century (Introduction and Appendix A) 
第4週
10/14  Proposition (Engel 1991: Ch.1; Grayling 1997, Ch. 1.) 
第5週
10/21  The meaning of logical connectives (Appendix B; Engel 1991: Ch.2; Sainsbury 1991: 2.2; 2.4; 2.5; 2.6. 2.7; 2.8) 
第6週
10/28  Name, definite description and existence (Grayling 1997: Ch. 4; Read 1995, Ch.5; Sainsbury 1991: 4.7; 4.8; 4.10; 4.11; 4.12; 4.20.) 
第7週
11/04  Quantifier and quantification (Engel 1991: Ch.4; Sainsbury 1991: 4.3; 4.4; 4.18; 4.19) 
第8週
11/11  Predicate and predication (Gale 2002: Ch 7.) 
第9週
11/18  Mid-term exam. 
第10週
11/25  Truth and theories of truth (Read 1995: Ch. 1; Grayling 1997: Chs. 5&6.) 
第11週
12/02  Logical consequence (Read 1995: Ch. 2; Goble (2001): Ch 6) 
第12週
12/09  Conditionals (Read 1995: Ch. 3.) 
第13週
12/16  Modality and possible worlds semantics (Read 1995: Ch. 4.) 
第14週
12/23  Semantic paradoxes and the Liar (Read 1995: Ch. 6.) 
第15週
12/30  Vagueness and sorties paradoxes (Read 1995: Ch. 7.) 
第16週
1/06  Propositional attitudes (Hale and Wright 1997: Ch.9) 
第17週
1/13  What is logic: The realistic view vs. the constructivist challenge (Read 1995: Ch. 8; Grayling 1997: Ch. 9.) 
第18週
1/20  End-of-term exam.