課程資訊
課程名稱
時間哲學
Philosophy of Time 
開課學期
107-1 
授課對象
文學院  哲學研究所  
授課教師
鄧敦民 
課號
Phl7788 
課程識別碼
124 M7810 
班次
 
學分
3.0 
全/半年
半年 
必/選修
選修 
上課時間
星期三8,9,10(15:30~18:20) 
上課地點
哲研討室三 
備註
本課程中文授課,使用英文教科書。B領域。
總人數上限:15人 
Ceiba 課程網頁
http://ceiba.ntu.edu.tw/1071phtime 
課程簡介影片
 
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課程概述

本課程將研讀時間哲學中的重要議題,包含(1)時間的形上學,(2)時間的方向性,(3)時間與倫理和經驗,以及(4)物理學中的時間。(本課程將使用Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Time為主要的研讀材料,這些議題便是從當中選出的。)
關於「時間的形上學」,我們會探討下列問題:我們該採取哪種關於時間的存有學?實在界中是否存在現在以外的東西?事物能夠在時間中延續是什麼意思?當我們說過去已定而將來未定,這是什麼意思?我們要如何發展一套處理時序推論的「時序邏輯」(tense logic)?時間有沒有可能不是連續而是離散的?
「時間的方向性」則是要研究以下的問題:過去與未來的不對稱性該如何解釋?在什麼意義下,我們不能像影響未來那樣子影響過去?這是否真的完全不可能?當我們說「時間流逝」或「時間在走」時,這是什麼意思?熱力學是否能夠提供關於時間方向性的最佳解釋?
關於「時間與倫理和經驗」,我們的主要問題是:我們是如何經驗到時間的流逝的?我們又要如何分析我們對時間的經驗?我們是如何發展時間的理解?在我們身體的運動和行為中的那種內在時間性是什麼?關於時間的考量,如損益的時間位置,是否在倫理學上扮演重要角色?
最後,我們可以探討以下關於「物理學中的時間」的問題:古典力學如何理解時間?電磁學是否能夠合理地解釋時間的方向性?相對論如何改變了我們時間的理解?這是否容許了時間旅行的可能性?量子力學又是如何理解時間的?
在本課程中,我們將會探討這些關於時間的哲學問題。我們會使用Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Time作為主要的研讀材料,選擇當中的章節來研讀,並討論當中所提到的議題。請有意修課的同學特別注意,本課程不是簡介性的演講課,而是需要修課同學參與的研討課(seminar),因此我們會要求每位修課同學要負責報告研讀的材料,並參與討論。
In this course, we shall be studying philosophy of time, which includes the following topics: (1) time and metaphysics, (2) the direction of time, (3) time, ethics, and experience, and (4) time in physics. (The topics are collected from the Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Time, which is the main text we shall be using in this course.)
With regard to time and metaphysics, we shall be investigating the following questions: What kind of ontology should we accept in talking about time? Does reality contain anything beyond what is present? What is it for something to persist in time? What does it mean to say that the past is fixed whilst the future is open? How can we develop a system of “tense logic” to deal with inferences involving time? Is time possibly be discrete rather than continuous?
Turning to issues about the direction of time, we shall study the following questions: How can we explain the asymmetry between the past and the future? Is it possible (and if so in what sense) that we may influence the past just as we can influence the future? What does it mean to say that time passes or flows? Does thermodynamics provide an adequate account of temporal asymmetry?
Concerning the topic about time, ethics, and experience, our central questions will be: How do we experience the passage of time? How can we analyze our temporal experience? How do we develop temporal understanding? What constitutes the intrinsic temporality in our bodily movement and action? Does temporal consideration such as the temporal locations of benefits and harms matter to us ethically?
Finally, we may investigate the nature of time in physics with the following questions: How is time understood in classical mechanics? Does electromagnetism provide the “arrow” of time? How does the theory of relativity in physics change our concept of time? Does it allow the possibility of time travel? How is time understood in quantum mechanics?
In this course, we shall be investigating these philosophical questions about time. We shall go through chapters from the Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Time and discuss the issues raised therein. Notice that the course is offered as seminars rather than introductory lectures. Students are required to give presentations on the materials and participate in the discussion.
 

課程目標
本課程目標在於訓練學生能夠
(1) 對於時間哲學中的基本議題能夠有完整地理解;
(2) 發展出自己對於時間哲學議題的立場。
In the end of the course, students are expected to
(1) have a comprehensive understanding of the basic issues in philosophy of time
(2) develop their own philosophical positions about philosophy of time
 
課程要求
我們會在 Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Time中挑選14個主題來研讀,每週1個主題。每位修課同學需要認領2個主題,輪流報告。除了負責報告的同學外,其餘同學需要準備討論問題,以進行討論。 
預期每週課後學習時數
 
Office Hours
 
參考書目
Bourne, C. A Future for Presentism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.
Le Poidevin, R., and Murray M., eds. The Philosophy of Time. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Mellor, D. H. Real Time II. London: Routledge, 1998.
Oaklander, L. N., ed. The Philosophy of Time. 4 vols. London: Routledge, 2008.
Price, H. Time's Arrow and Archimedes' Point: New Directions for the Physics of Time. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Prosser, S. Experiencing Time. Vol. Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2016.
Skow, B. Objective Becoming. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015. 
指定閱讀
Callender, C. ed. The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Time. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. 
評量方式
(僅供參考)
 
No.
項目
百分比
說明
1. 
課堂報告 
80% 
 
2. 
課堂參與 
20% 
 
 
課程進度
週次
日期
單元主題
第1週
9/12  Introduction 
第2週
9/19  “Persistence” by Yuri Balashov  
第3週
9/26  “Fatalism and the Future” by Craig Bourne 
第4週
10/03  “Time and Modality” by Ulrich Meyer 
第5週
10/10  National Holiday (no class) 
第6週
10/17  “Presentism” by M. Joshua Mozersky 
第7週
10/24  “Presentism and the Space-Time Manifold” by Dean Zimmerman (Sections 1-3, pp.163-205) 
第8週
10/31  “Presentism and the Space-Time Manifold” by Dean Zimmerman (Sections 4-5, pp.205-244) 
第9週
11/07  Midterm break 
第10週
11/14  “The Asymmetry of Influence” by Douglas Kutach 
第11週
11/21  Wendy Huang Lectures 
第12週
11/28  “Time in Thermodynamics” by Jill North 
第13週
12/05  “The Flow of Time” by Huw Price 
第14週
12/12  “Time, Passage, and Immediate Experience” by Barry Dainton 
第15週
12/19  “Time in Action” by Shaun Gallagher 
第16週
12/26  “Time in Cognitive Development” by Christoph Hoerl and Teresa McCormack 
第17週
1/02  "Temporal Experience" by Jenann Ismael