課程資訊
課程名稱
日常語言哲學
Ordinary Language Philosophy 
開課學期
109-1 
授課對象
文學院  哲學研究所  
授課教師
楊金穆 
課號
Phl7566 
課程識別碼
124EM8050 
班次
 
學分
3.0 
全/半年
半年 
必/選修
選修 
上課時間
星期四7,8,9(14:20~17:20) 
上課地點
哲研討室二 
備註
本課程以英語授課。研究所:B、C領域。 大學部:(C)哲學專題群組。
總人數上限:15人 
Ceiba 課程網頁
http://ceiba.ntu.edu.tw/1091Phl7566_Ordinary 
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課程概述

Ordinary language philosophy, also known as British linguistic philosophy or Oxford School, is a school of analytic philosophy that originated in the 1930’s and developed in Great Britain (Gilbert Ryle (1900-1976), J. L. Austin (1911-1960), John Wisdom (1904-1993), Margaret MacDonald (1907-1956)). It has influenced philosophers in north America (Max Black (1909-1988), Normal Malcolm (1911-1990)). Australia, and the Scandinavian countries. The underlying thought of this philosophical movement is to denounce the traditional view that philosophy’s task is to present an integrated view of the reality (or the world), and to regard traditional philosophical problems as pseudo-problems that arise as a result of the disorienting influence of language on thought.
However, unlike the adherents of the philosophy of logical
analysis — another variety of analytic philosophy, the ordinary language philosophers consider that the task of the philosophical analysis is not to reform language in accordance with some logical norm, but rather to provide a detailed analysis of the actual use of natural spoken language with the aim of eliminating the misunderstandings which arise as a result of the incorrect usage of language. In particular, according to ordinary language philosophy, such an analysis leads to a clarification of the causes underlying the formulation of philosophical problems; these problems supposedly result from the incorrect application of ordinary word usage. In other words, in contrast to all kinds of tendencies toward the unification of language, they emphasized the diversity of linguistic phenomena and of the methods of using linguistic expressions.
Inspired by the later Wittgenstein's use theory of meaning, the primary concern of ordinary language philosophers is with the question: How else are concepts to be elucidated if not through meticulous attention to the usage of words through which they are expressed? They believed that close attention to the concepts and distinctions that have become embodied in the language is the beginning, if not the end, of philosophy, whilst airy recommendations about how we should think about something frequently fall short of the skill and delicacy with which we do think about.
Owing to the rejection of preoccupation with technicalities in philosophical research, that is, a preoccupation with the use of a specialized conceptual apparatus, and upholding the purity of natural language usage, ordinary language philosophers resolutely oppose scientism in philosophy, especially the scientism of the logical positivists. However, later development of the ordinary language philosophy has proved valuable in the analysis of the logical structure of ordinary language (linguistically) and the study of its semantic possibilities (with regard to the philosophy of language.) 

課程目標
1. An introduction to the philosophy of representative figures of the ordinary language philosophy, typically, late Wittgenstein, J. L. Austin, Paul Grice, P.F. Strawson and Michael Dummett.
2. To study the meaning of fundamental concepts involved in the use of language.
3. To investigate the impact of the development of ordinary language philosophy in the philosophy of language, especially the theory of meaning. 
課程要求
Every week, a seminal essay (or a chapter in a classical book) will be assigned. In each class time, a student may give a presentation (about 30-60 minutes) on the weekly assigned essay. By the end of semester, a long essay (about 3000 words, or 10 pages, double space, in A4 size) is required. 
預期每週課後學習時數
 
Office Hours
 
參考書目
Tarski, Alfred. 1933/[1983]. The concept of truth in the languages of the deductive sciences. Original version in Polish, in Prace Towarzystwa Naukowego Warszawskiego, Wydzial III Nauk Matematyczno-Fizycznych 34 (1933), Warsaw. Expanded English translation in Tarski’s Logic, Semantics, Metamathematics, Papers from 1923 to 1938. John Corcoran. Ed. 152–278. Indianapolis: Hackett. 1983.
Tarski, A. 1944/[1986]. The semantic conception of truth: And the foundations of semantics. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 4(3): 341-76. Reprinted in Alfred Tarski Collected Papers. Vol. 2: 1935-44. S. R. Givant and R. N. McKenzie. Eds. 661-99. Basel: Birkhauser Verlag. 1986.
Hempel, Carl. 1965. Empiricist criterion of cognitive significance: Problems and changes. In Aspects of Scientific Explanation. Chapter Four. 101-119. New York, NY: The Free Press (London: Collier-Macmillan).
Wittgenstein, L. 2009. Philosophical Investigations. Revised 4th edition by P.M.S. Hacker and Joachim Schulte. The German text with an English translation by G.E.M. Anscombe, P.M.S. Hacker and Joachim Schulte. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
G. E. M. Anscombe. 1957. Intention. Oxford: Blackwell.
Austin, J. L. 1962/[1975]. How to Do Things with Words: The William James Lectures delivered at Harvard University in 1955. (Chapter XI: 121-47.) 2nd edition (1st ed. 1962). J. O. Urmson and Marina Sbisa. Eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Austin, J. L. 1963/[1971]. Performative-constative. Originally in French presented at a conference in 1958. English translation by G. J. Warnock firstly appeared in Philosophy and Ordinary Language (C. E. Caton. Ed. Champaign, IL.: University of Illinois Press. 1963.) Reprinted in Philosophy of Language. John Searle. Ed. 13-22. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1971. [Note: the content of this paper is similar to ‘Performative utterances’ (Austin (1979): 233-52) — originally a transcript of an unscripted talk delivered in the Third Programme of the BBC in 1956.]
Grice, H. P. 1957/[1989]. Meaning. Philosophical Review 66(3): 377-88. Reprinted in Grice (1989). Chapter 14:213-223.
----- 1975. Logic and conversation. In Syntax and Semantics. Vol 3: Speech Act. Cole, P., and J. L. Morgan. Eds. 41-58. New York: Academic Press. Reprinted in Grice (1989). Chapter 2: 22-40.
----- 1989. Studies in the Way of Words. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Montague, Richard. 1970/[1974]. Universal grammar. Theoria 36 (1970): 373–398. Reprinted in Montague (1974).
Montague, Richard. 1968/[1974]. Pragmatics. In Contemporary Philosophy: A Survey. R. Klibansky. Ed. 102-122. Florence: La Nuova Italia Editrice. Reprinted in Montague (1974): 95–118.
Montague, Richard. 1970/[1974]. English as a formal language. In Linguaggi nella Societa e nella Tecnica. B. Visentini, et al. Eds. 189-224. Milan: Edizioni di Communita. Reprinted in Montague (1974):188–221.
Montague, Richard. 1974. Formal philosophy: Selected Papers of Richard Montague. Edited with an introduction by Richmond H. Thomason. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Strawson, P. F. 1959. Individuals, London: Methuen.
Strawson, P. F. 1969/(1971). Meaning and truth. In Logico-Linguistic Papers.131-145. London: Methuen. 1971. Originally delivered as an inaugural lecture at the University of Oxford on 5 November 1969. Later issued with the title ‘Meaning and Truth: An Inaugural Lecture Delivered before the University of Oxford on 5 November 1969’. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1970.
Strawson, P. F. 1985. The matter of meaning. In Scepticism and Naturalism: Some Varieties. Chapter 4: 57-77. London: Routledge.
Kripke, Saul (1982). Wittgenstein on Rules and Private Language. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. pp.7-25; 66-71, 84-100.
Dummett, Michael. 2006. Thought and Reality. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (pp.1-44) 
指定閱讀
Tarski, Alfred. 1933/[1983]. The concept of truth in the languages of the deductive sciences. Original version in Polish, in Prace Towarzystwa Naukowego Warszawskiego, Wydzial III Nauk Matematyczno-Fizycznych 34 (1933), Warsaw. Expanded English translation in Tarski’s Logic, Semantics, Metamathematics, Papers from 1923 to 1938. John Corcoran. Ed. 152–278. Indianapolis: Hackett. 1983.
Tarski, A. 1944/[1986]. The semantic conception of truth: And the foundations of semantics. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 4(3): 341-76. Reprinted in Alfred Tarski Collected Papers. Vol. 2: 1935-44. S. R. Givant and R. N. McKenzie. Eds. 661-99. Basel: Birkhäuser Verlag. 1986.
Hempel, Carl. 1965. Empiricist criterion of cognitive significance: Problems and changes. In Aspects of Scientific Explanation. Chapter Four. 101-119. New York, NY: The Free Press (London: Collier-Macmillan).
Wittgenstein, L. 2009. Philosophical Investigations. Revised 4th edition by P.M.S. Hacker and Joachim Schulte. The German text with an English translation by G.E.M. Anscombe, P.M.S. Hacker and Joachim Schulte. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
G. E. M. Anscombe. 1957. Intention. Oxford: Blackwell.
Austin, J. L. 1962/[1975]. How to Do Things with Words: The William James Lectures delivered at Harvard University in 1955. (Chapter XI: 121-47.) 2nd edition (1st ed. 1962). J. O. Urmson and Marina Sbisà. Eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Austin, J. L. 1963/[1971]. Performative-constative. Originally in French presented at a conference in 1958. English translation by G. J. Warnock firstly appeared in Philosophy and Ordinary Language (C. E. Caton. Ed. Champaign, IL.: University of Illinois Press. 1963.) Reprinted in Philosophy of Language. John Searle. Ed. 13-22. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1971. [Note: the content of this paper is similar to ‘Performative utterances’ (Austin (1979): 233-52) — originally a transcript of an unscripted talk delivered in the Third Programme of the BBC in 1956.]
Grice, H. P. 1957/[1989]. Meaning. Philosophical Review 66(3): 377-88. Reprinted in Grice (1989). Chapter 14:213-223.
----- 1975. Logic and conversation. In Syntax and Semantics. Vol 3: Speech Act. Cole, P., and J. L. Morgan. Eds. 41-58. New York: Academic Press. Reprinted in Grice (1989). Chapter 2: 22-40.
----- 1989. Studies in the Way of Words. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Montague, Richard. 1970/[1974]. Universal grammar. Theoria 36 (1970): 373–398. Reprinted in Montague (1974).
Montague, Richard. 1968/[1974]. Pragmatics. In Contemporary Philosophy: A Survey. R. Klibansky. Ed. 102-122. Florence: La Nuova Italia Editrice. Reprinted in Montague (1974): 95–118.
Montague, Richard. 1970/[1974]. English as a formal language. In Linguaggi nella Società e nella Tecnica. B. Visentini, et al. Eds. 189-224. Milan: Edizioni di Communita. Reprinted in Montague (1974):188–221.
Montague, Richard. 1974. Formal philosophy: Selected Papers of Richard Montague. Edited with an introduction by Richmond H. Thomason. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Strawson, P. F. 1959. Individuals, London: Methuen.
Strawson, P. F. 1969/(1971). Meaning and truth. In Logico-Linguistic Papers.131-145. London: Methuen. 1971. Originally delivered as an inaugural lecture at the University of Oxford on 5 November 1969. Later issued with the title ‘Meaning and Truth: An Inaugural Lecture Delivered before the University of Oxford on 5 November 1969’. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1970.
Strawson, P. F. 1985. The matter of meaning. In Scepticism and Naturalism: Some Varieties. Chapter 4: 57-77. London: Routledge.
Kripke, Saul (1982). Wittgenstein on Rules and Private Language. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. pp.7-25; 66-71, 84-100.
Dummett, Michael. 2006. Thought and Reality. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (pp.1-44)
 
評量方式
(僅供參考)
 
No.
項目
百分比
說明
1. 
Long essay 
40% 
 
2. 
Weekly assignment  
30% 
 
3. 
Class contribution 
30% 
 
 
課程進度
週次
日期
單元主題
第1週
9/17  Introduction — The origin of linguistic philosophy and its development (Early analytic philosophy: Gottlob Frege, G. E. Moore, B. Russell and Wittgenstein’s Tractatus) 
第2週
9/24  Ideal language philosophy (logical positivism) — The principle of verification, Tarski’s formal semantics and the construction of a theory of truth for natural language, Carl Hempel on the empiricist criterion of cognitive significance. 
第3週
10/01  Wittgenstein’s use theory of meaning 
第4週
10/08  Wittgenstein on private language 
第5週
10/15  Wittgenstein on rule-following 
第6週
10/22  Semantic normativity 
第7週
10/29  Anscombe on intention—theory of action 
第8週
11/05  Austin’s speech act theory 
第9週
11/12  Midterm 
第10週
11/19  Grice’s Intention-based Semantics 
第11週
11/26  Montague’s natural language semantics (Montague grammar) 
第12週
12/03  Strawson’s descriptive metaphysics 
第13週
12/10  Strawson’s rejection of truth-conditional programme — Reference, truth and meaning 
第14週
12/17  The Kripkenstein 
第15週
12/24  Dummett on truth, thought and reality 
第16週
12/31  Dummett’s justificationalist theory of meaning 
第17週
1/07  Dummett on the reality of time 
第18週
1/14  Final