課程資訊
課程名稱
中國青銅時代考古專題
Chinese Bronze Age Archaeology: Major Themes 
開課學期
107-2 
授課對象
文學院  人類學研究所  
授課教師
高德 
課號
Anth7117 
課程識別碼
125EM3160 
班次
 
學分
3.0 
全/半年
半年 
必/選修
選修 
上課時間
星期二3,4,5(10:20~13:10) 
上課地點
水源人201 
備註
本課程以英語授課。授課對象:PhD,M, 大三、四年級
限學士班三年級以上
總人數上限:25人 
Ceiba 課程網頁
http://ceiba.ntu.edu.tw/1072Anth7117 
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課程概述

This course is a seminar for advanced undergraduate, MA, PhD students. We will focus on a variety of issues concerning the archaeology of Bronze Age China and explore some of the key research themes on this period and the multidisciplinary approaches used to gain understanding of them. The time period covered by the course can extend from ca. 2000-221 BC (which is roughly from the period of social complexity of the Late Neolithic period and the early use of bronze technology through the Qin unification [technically already the Iron Age]). However, our principle concern will be the earlier part of the Bronze age, roughly between ca. 1600-1045 BC, during the Xia and Shang dynastic periods. What we will cover, however, is flexible, and we can decide as a class about which topics interest us the most this semester. This will include looking at both “classic” papers and books that are the foundation of research today and looking critically at recent publications and how they introduce new ideas and approaches, so we can see the “state of the art” in the field.
The foundation of Chinese Bronze Age archaeological research was the excavations of Yinxu 殷墟, the “Ruins of Yin” at Anyang, in the 1920s-30s, now known to be the last capital of the Shang dynasty. Our investigations will also begin here, looking at the discovery of Anyang and the understandings we have gained about such interrelated categories as: the nature of political power; the organization, structure, and roles of early cities; socio-political organization; the early Chinese writing system as seen through Shang “oracle bones”; ideology, religion, and belief systems; burial systems and their analysis; and technology, including the production of bronzes. We will also extend out from Anyang to consider earlier period archaeological sites and regional archaeological cultures as part of a “Chinese Bronze Age Interaction Sphere”, as termed by K.C. Chang. Our approach will be explicitly anthropological (we will discuss what this means) and one top concern will be the sources and nature of political power and authority.
 

課程目標
Students taking this course will gain an understanding of the main issues in research on the archaeology of the Chinese Bronze Age. Students will gain knowledge of the multidisciplinary approaches used in anthropological archaeological study of the Bronze Age and of the development of Bronze Age socio-political organization, economies, technologies, and ideologies. 
課程要求
Class participation 20%
Discussion Leader 20%
Case studies (2) 20%
Research Paper 40%
 
預期每週課後學習時數
 
Office Hours
每週二 13:40~15:40 備註: Tuesdays 1:45-3:45 PM 
參考書目
待補 
指定閱讀
待補 
評量方式
(僅供參考)
 
No.
項目
百分比
說明
1. 
Class participation 
20% 
 
2. 
Discussion Leader 
20% 
 
3. 
Case studies (2) 
20% 
 
4. 
Research Paper 
40% 
 
 
課程進度
週次
日期
單元主題
Week 1
02/19  Introduction to the course (goals, content, requirements, weekly format, syllabus, topics) and to Bronze Age China.

Updates to the Course Syllabus will always appear here as a PDF.

Discussion/Case study schedule is included here. 
Week 2
02/26  The Discovery of the Anyang Shang Capital Site and the Scholarly Doorways to Study of the Shang

Required readings (available on CEIBA):

Chang, Kwang-chih 1980. ”Five Doors to Shang.” In Shang Civilization. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, pp. 1-67. [Chinese translations: 張光直,《商文明》北京工藝美術社(1999)、遼寧教育出版社(2001)、三聯書店 (2013) 中譯本]

Falkenhausen, Lothar 1993. “On the historiographical orientation of Chinese archaeology.” Antiquity 67(257): 839-849.

Supplementary readings (optional, for papers, etc.):

Edward L Shaughnessy (1997). “Introduction," In New Sources of Early Chinese History: An Introduction to the Reading of Inscriptions and Manuscripts, edited by Edward L. Shaughnessy. Berkeley: Society for the Study of Early China, and the Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley, pp. 1-14.

Chang, K.C. (1981). “Archaeology and Chinese historiography.” World Archaeology 13: 156-169.
 
Week 3
03/05  The Shang Royal Capital and Its Network

Required readings:
Chang, K.C. (1980). Shang Civilization (New Haven: Yale U.P.), pp. 69-135.

Supplementary readings:

Bagley, Robert (1999). Shang Archaeology. In (CHAC): Michael Loewe and E. L. Shaughnessy (eds.), The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of Civilization to 221 BC. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 124-135, 171-208.

Keightley, David N. (1999). The Shang: China’s First Historical Dynasty. In CHAC pp. 232-291.
 
Week 4
03/12  Before Shang: Erlitou and the Search for the Xia Dynasty

Required readings:

Xu, Hong (2018). “Erlitou: The origin of the tradition of non-fortified primary capitals in early China.” Archaeological Research in Asia 14: 71-79.

Allan, Sarah (2007). “Erlitou and the formation of Chinese civilization: Toward a new paradigm.” The Journal of Asian Studies 66 (2): 461-496.

Wu, Qinglong, Zhijun Zhao, Li Liu, Darryl E. Granger, Hui Wang, David J. Cohen, Xiaohong Wu et al. (2016). “Outburst flood at 1920 BCE supports historicity of China’s Great Flood and the Xia dynasty." Science 353, no. 6299 (2016): 579-582.
 
Week 5
03/19  Middle Shang Capitals and Walled Settlements and the Erligang Expansion: Zhengzhou, Yanshi, Panlongcheng, Xiaoshuangqiao, and Huanbei

Required readings:

Bagley, Robert (2014). “Erligang bronzes and the discovery of the Erligang Culture.” In Kyle Steinke (ed.), Art and Archaeology of the Erligang Civilization, pp. 19-48. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Yuan Guangkuo (2013). “The discovery and study of the Early Shang Culture.” In Anne P. Underhill (ed.), A Companion to Chinese Archaeology, pp. 323-342. West Sussex UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

Campbell, Roderick (2014). Erligang: a tale of two "civilizations." In Kyle Steinke (ed.), Art and Archaeology of the Erligang Civilization, pp. 121-135. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Zhang, Changping (2014). "Erligang: a perspective from Panlongcheng." In Kyle Steinke (ed.), Art and Archaeology of the Erligang Civilization, pp. 51-63.
 
Week 7
04/02  No Class: NTU Study Day 
Week 8
04/09  No Class: Midterms Week 
Week 9
04/16  No Class: Student individual visits to Academia Sinica Institute of History and Philology Anyang Exhibition 
Week 11
04/30  Shang Ritual and Religion: Sacrifice, Divination and Shamanism

Required readings

Chang, K.C. (1993). “Shang Shamans.” In Willard Peterson (ed.), Power of Culture (Princeton: Princeton University Press), pp. 10-36.

Feng, Qu 2017. “Anthropology and historiography: a deconstructive analysis of K. C. Chang’s shamanic approach in Chinese archaeology. Numen 64: 497-544.

Keightley, David N. 1998. “Shamanism, death, and the ancestors: Religious mediation in Neolithic and Shang China (ca. 5000–1000 B.C.).” Asiatische Studien 52: 763–830.

Supplementary readings:

Furst, Peter T. (1974). “Roots and Continuities of Shamanism.” Artscanada 184-187 (Dec 1973/Jan 1974): 33-60.

Hawkes, David (trans.) (1985). The Songs of the South. (New York: Penguin Classics), pp. 15-66, 95-122. (或者參考楚辭)

Thote, Alain 2009. Shang and Zhou funeral practices: interpretation of material vestiges. In Lagerwey, John and Kalinowski, Marc (eds), Early Chinese religion. Part One: Shang Through Han (1250 BC-220 AD), pp. 103-142. Leiden: Brill.
 
Week 12
05/07  Beyond Shang: Regional Bronze Age Cultures―Sanxingdui and Jinsha, and Xin'gan

Required (Re-read from Week 3):

Bagley, Robert (1999). “Shang archaeology.” In Michael Loewe and Edward L. Shaughnessy, eds., The Cambridge History of Ancient China (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). In Cambridge History of Ancient China. Read pp. 171-175 (Xin’gan and Wucheng), 208-231 (Sanxingdui). [from Week 3]

Xin'gan 新干 and Wucheng 吳城:

Zhang Liangren (2006). “Wucheng and Shang: A new history of a Bronze Age civilization in southern China.” Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities 79: 53-78.

For reference:

Bagley, Robert (1993). “An Early Bronze Age Tomb in Jiangxi Province.” Orientations, July 1993: 20-36.

Sanxingdui and Jinsha:

Required:

Falkenhausen, Lothar von (2005). “The external connections of Sanxingdui.” Journal of East Asian Archaeology 5 (1-4): 191-245.

Sun Hua 孫華 (2013). “The Sanxingdui Culture of the Sichuan Basin.” In In Underhill, Anne P. (ed.), A Companion to Chinese Archaeology. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 147-168.

Zhu Zhangyi 朱章義, Zhang Qing 張擎, and Wang Fang 王方 (2005). “The Jinsha site: an introduction.” Journal of East Asian Archaeology 5 (1-4): 247-276.

For reference:

Wu Hung (1997). “All about the eyes: Two groups of sculptures from the Sanxingdui culture.” Orientations 28 (8): 58-66

Shi Jingsong (2005). “Re-examination of the artifact pits of Sanxingdui.” Chinese Archaeology 5.1: 200-208.

Term paper topics due 5/20 by email
 
Week 13
05/14  External Connections in the Early Bronze Age: Bronze Technology and Chariots and Horses

Mei, Jianjun (2009). “Early metallurgy and socio-cultural complexity: archaeological discoveries in Northwest China.” In Hanks, Bryan H. and Kathryn M. Linduff (eds.), Social Complexity in Prehistoric Eurasia, pp. 215-232. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press.

Mei, Jianjun, Yongbin Yu, Kunlong Chen and Lu Wang (2017). “The appropriation of early bronze technology in China.” In Joseph Maran (Editor); Philipp Stockhammer (Editor), Appropriating Innovations: Entangled Knowledge in Eurasia, 5000‒1500 BCE, pp. 231-240. Oxford: Oxbow Books.

Kim, Nanny (2011). “Cultural attitudes and horse technologies: A view on chariots and stirrups from the eastern end of the Eurasian continent.” In: Günergun F., Raina D. (eds), Science between Europe and Asia. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, vol 275: 57-73. Springer.

Linduff, Kathryn M. (2003). A walk on the wild side: Late Shang appropriation of horses in China. In Prehistoric Steppe Adaptation and the Horse, edited by Marsha Levine, C. Renfrew and K. Boyle, pp.139-162. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.

Shelach-Lavi, Gideon (2015). “Steppe Land Interactions and their effects on Chinese cultures during the second and early first millennia BCE.” In R. Amitai and M. Biran, (eds.), Eurasian Nomads as Agents of Cultural Change, pp. 10-31. Hawaii University Press.

For Reference:

Barbieri-Low, Anthony Jerome (2000). “Wheeled vehicles in the Chinese Bronze Age (c. 2000-741 BC).” Sino-Platonic Papers No. 99: 1-98. Department of Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, University of Pennsylvania.

Hein, Anke (2014). Introduction: Diffusionism, migration, and the archaeology of the Chinese border regions. In A. Hein (Ed.), The ‘crescent-shaped cultural-communication belt’: Tong Enzheng’s model in retrospect, BAR International Series 2679 (pp. 1–17). Oxford: Archaeopress.

Li, Jaang (2015). “The Landscape of China’s Participation in the Bronze Age Eurasian Network.” Journal of World Prehistory 28 (3): 179-213.
 
Week 14
05/21  Issues in Shang Bronze Technology

Required readings:

Chase, W. T. (1991). “Ancient Chinese bronze art: casting the precious sacral vessel.” In W.T. Chase (ed.), Ancient Chinese Bronze Art (New York: China House Gallery), pp. 19-38.

Bagley, Robert (2009). Anyang mold-making and the decorated model. Artibus Asiae 69(1): 39-90.

Li, Yung-ti, Zhanwei Yue, and Yuling He (2018). "Annihilation or decline: The fall of Anyang as an urban center." Archaeological Research in Asia 14: 97-105.

Li, Yung‐ti (2007). “Specialization, context of production, and alienation in the production process: Comments and afterthoughts.” Archeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association 17(1): 169-180.

Mei, Jianjun, Pu Wang, Kunlong Chen, Lu Wang, Yingchen Wang, Yaxiong Liu (2015). “Archaeometallurgical studies in China: some recent developments and challenging issues.” Journal of Archaeological Science 56: 221-232.

Review these previous readings:

Bagley, Robert 1999. Shang Archaeology. In The Cambridge History of Ancient China, Loewe, Michael and Edward L. Shaugnessy, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 124-230 [On bronze casting: 136-155] .

Bagley, Robert 2014. Erligang Bronzes and the Discovery of the Erligang Culture. In Steinke, Kyle and Dora C. Y. Ching, eds., Art and Archaeology of the Erligang Civilization. Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 19-50.

Term paper topics due 5/20 by email
 
Week 15
05/28  Impact of the Modern Political Context on Bronze Age Archaeology

Required readings:

Falkenhausen, Lothar von (1995). “The regionalist paradigm in Chinese archaeology.” In Philip Kohl and Clare Fawcett (eds.), Nationalism, Politics, and the Practice of Archaeology (Cambridge: Cambridge U.P.), pp. 198-217.

Li, Jian, Hui Fang, and Anne P. Underhill (2016). “The history of perception and protection of cultural heritage in China.” In A. P. Underhill, L. C. Salazar (eds.), Finding Solutions for Protecting and Sharing Archaeological Heritage Resources, pp. 1-16. Springer.

Li, Yung-ti (2014). “The politics of maps, pottery, and archaeology: hidden assumptions in Chinese Bronze Age archaeology.” In Steinke, Kyle and Dora C. Y. Ching, eds., Art and Archaeology of the Erligang Civilization. Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 137-150.

Liu, Li (2009). “Academic freedom, political correctness, and early civilisation in Chinese archaeology: the debate on Xia-Erlitou relations.” Antiquity 83(321): 831-843.

For Reference:

Murowchick, Robert E. (2013). “Despoiled of the Garments of her Civilization”: problems and progress in archaeological heritage management in China. In Anne P. Underhill (ed.), A Companion to Chinese Archaeology, pp. 13-34. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Wang, Shu-Li (2016). “Civilization and the transformation of Xiaotun village at Yin Xu archaeological site, China.” World Heritage on the Ground: Ethnographic Perspectives. Oxford: Berghahn Books, pp. 171-192.

Zhang, Liangren (2013). “The Chinese school of archaeology.” Antiquity 87 (337): 896-904.
 
Week 16
06/04  Student Term Paper Workshop 1

Presentations by:
Edwin Pietersma
Jesper Lundkvist
Lin, Chia-Le
Maksym Olaf Marzyglinski
Yang Sheng-Bin
Yen-Chun Wang

Case Study by Louis
 
Week 17
06/11  Student Term Paper Workshop 2

June 11 Workshop Presentations:
Jocelyn Teo
Louis Boudoussi
Luca-Elia Philip Salomon
Ronny Eriksson
Sebastian Yi Jie Poh
Thomas Kuklinski
Yen-Chun Wang
 
Week 18
06/18  No Class: Final Exam Week 
Week 20
06/30  Western Zhou Archaeology: The Predynastic Zhou, the Shang Conquest, and the Early Western Zhou 
Week 20
06/30  Shang Dynastic Origins: Great City Shang, the Proto-Shang Culture, and Ethnicity and the Relationship between Shang, the Eastern Yi, and other ethnic groups 
Week 6-1
03/20  K.C. Chang’s ideas on art, myth, and ritual and their ties to political authority

Required reading:
Chang, Kwang-chih (1983). Art, Myth and Ritual: The Path to Political Authority in Ancient China. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Chinese translations are also available:
張光直,《美術、神話與祭祀》,台北:稻鄉出版社,1993。 (譯者: 郭淨 ),《神話與祭祀》,生活·讀書·新知三聯書店, 2013.
 
Week 10-1
04/23  Oracle Bone Divination, Inscriptions, and Shang Writing

Keightley, David N. 2006. “Marks and labels: writing in Neolithic and Shang China.” In Miriam T. Stark (editor), Archaeology of Asia, pp. 177-201. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Keightley, David N. 2014 [1999]. “Theology and the writing of history: truth and the ancestors in the Wu Ding divination records.” These Bones Shall Rise Again: Selected Writings on Early China, pp. 207-227. Albany: SUNY Press.

Keightley, David N. 2014. “Shang Divination and Metaphysics.” These Bones Shall Rise Again: Selected Writings on Early China, pp. 123-153. Albany: SUNY Press.

Optional:
Moore, Oliver 2000. Reading the Past- Chinese. Berkeley: U. of Calif. Press. Chapters 1-4


For reference:
Keightley, David N. 2000. The Ancestral Landscape: Time, Space, and Community in Late Shang China (ca. 1200-1045 B.C.). Berkeley: Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California at Berkeley.

Keightley, David (1978). Sources of Shang History: The Oracle-Bone Inscriptions of Bronze Age China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978; 2d ed. and paperback, 1985.