課程資訊
課程名稱
人類學的存有論轉向
Ontological Turn in Anthropology 
開課學期
109-2 
授課對象
文學院  人類學研究所  
授課教師
黃郁茜 
課號
Anth7130 
課程識別碼
125 M3290 
班次
 
學分
3.0 
全/半年
半年 
必/選修
選修 
上課時間
星期一3,4,5(10:20~13:10) 
上課地點
水源人201 
備註
總人數上限:15人 
 
課程簡介影片
 
核心能力關聯
核心能力與課程規劃關聯圖
課程大綱
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課程概述

本課程為人類學系碩士班選修課程,介紹人類學存有論轉向(ontological turn,通常翻譯為本體論轉向)的背景、重要人物與著作。

人類學中的ontological turn匯聚了好幾支思想潮流,各有其淵源。目前重疊出幾個主要的討論取向:(1) STS; (2) speculative realism/object-oriented ontology; (3)方法論∕知識論的相互關係。對人類學知識發展而言,是(3)方法論∕知識論的相互關係裡的兩個陣營──法國結構主義以及英國社會人類學彼此之間的隱約對立或稱辯論最為明顯。這兩個陣營也最為國內人類學者所熟悉。本課期望把「存有論轉向」的幾個理路梳理清楚,增進同學對於人類學重要議題的認識與敏感度。 

課程目標
認識人類學理論發展,增進口頭報告、書面提問、研究計劃與學術論文的撰寫能力。 
課程要求
這門課以seminar方式進行。修課同學選擇自己感興趣的子題輪流進行口頭報告。當週不需報告的同學,則須針對每週閱讀材料,提出一頁以內的心得、回應或問題,課前上傳至討論區。
學期末須繳交約12-15頁的期末報告或者文獻評述。請於學期中繳交期末報告題目與一頁的摘要(或大綱初稿),並於最後一堂課做簡短的口頭發表。 
預期每週課後學習時數
 
Office Hours
另約時間 備註: 週一 13:20-14:20/週二 18:30-19:30(請事先預約) 
參考書目
見課程進度 
指定閱讀
見課程進度 
評量方式
(僅供參考)
 
No.
項目
百分比
說明
1. 
課堂出席與參與(含導讀) 
25% 
修課同學選擇自己感興趣的子題,針對當週文本進行口頭報告與提問。 
2. 
每週回應 
25% 
當週不需口頭報告的同學,須針對每週閱讀材料,提出一頁以內的心得、回應或問題,課前上傳至討論區。上課須積極參與討論。 
3. 
學期報告 
50% 
5/17 須繳交期末報告題目,與一頁的摘要(或大綱初稿)。 7/2 午夜十二點之前,請繳交約12-15頁的期末報告或者文獻評述。期末報告每遲交12小時,成績扣一個等級。 
 
課程進度
週次
日期
單元主題
第1週
2/22  (*課程大綱僅供參考,實際授課內容將視正式上課情形調整。上課第一週將發給修課同學完整課程大綱,請修課同學準時出席。)

第一週:課程簡介

Heywood, Paulo (2017)在劍橋人類學百科裡面所寫的詞條”Ontological Turn, The”(http://www.anthroencyclopedia.com/entry/ontological-turn)

Kohn, Eduardo. "Anthropology of ontologies." Annual Review of Anthropology 44 (2015): 311-327.
 
第2週
3/1  二二八國定假日補假 
第3週
3/8  第一單元:在存有論的森林裡

Holbraad, Martin, and Morten Axel Pedersen
2017 "Introduction" and "Ch 1: Other Ontological Turns." In The Ontological Turn: An Anthropological Exposition. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1-68.

[參考]
Moore, Jerry D.
2019 Visions of Culture : An Introduction to Anthropological Theories and Theorists. Part VIII: The Ontological Turn. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.
 
第4週
3/15  第二單元:Deep Ontologies (I)

Lévi-Strauss, Claude
1966[1962] The Savage Mind. University of Chicago Press. Ch1, 2, 5.

[參考]
1991[1962] Totemism. Rodney Needham trans. London: The Merlin Press.
 
第5週
3/22  邀請演講:

講者:中山大學哲學研究所宋灝教授(Prof. Mathias Obert)

講題:海德格論人的存在與梅洛龐蒂的身體現象學

摘要:
古典存有論談論的是萬物作為「存有者」共同所具有的最普遍性質,即「存有」。可是,人為什麼會有「存有」這樣的概念?人為什麼會面對萬物並擁有世界?海德格有關人的存在方式所展開的思想推翻了或至少轉向了當代存有論,而梅洛龐蒂則進一步展開了身體自我與世界的生活關係。本演講將介紹海德格對傳統形上學所進行的批判及其對人的「存在」所給的闡述。再來,將介紹梅洛龐蒂的身體現象學如何從具體行為的視角補充海德格的論述。

請先閱讀:
Heidegger, Martin
[1927] Being and Time (Sein und Zeit). Joan Stambaugh trans. Revised edition. State University of New York Press. Part One, Division One, Chapter One, Ch 9-10. Pp. 39-47.

中譯本:
馬丁.海德格爾
2018《存在與時間》第一部.第一篇.第一章.第九節-第十節。陳嘉映、王慶節譯。北京:商務印書館。頁54-65。 
第6週
3/29  第二單元:Deep Ontologies (II)

Descola, Philippe
2013 Beyond Nature and Culture. University of Chicago Press. Forward, Preface, Part II, III. pp. vi-xx, 91-244.

報告:菡萏

[參考]
Sahlins, Marshall
2014 "On the Ontological Scheme of Beyond Nature and Culture." Hau: Journal of Ethnographic Theory 4(1): 281-290.

鄭瑋寧
2020 「可分解的存有、差異的對稱及動態的整體論秩序:從Descola的類比本體論體制談起」。發表於華人文化講座VI & A華人思維模式研究群活動。政治大學華人文化主體性研究中心主辦。11月16日。台北:政治大學。(https://fb.watch/405w6xnISm/ 6:42:03-7:20:57) 
第7週
4/5  春假.民族掃墓節
 
第8週
4/12  第三單元:Alternative Ontology (I): Roy Wagner

Holbraad, Martin, and Morten Axel Pedersen
2017 "Ch 2: Analogic Anthropology: Wagner's Inventions and Obviations." In The Ontological Turn: An Anthropological Exposition. Cambridge University Press. pp. 69-109.

報告:暐妍

Wagner, Roy
2018 The Logic of Invention. Ch.4 (The Ontology of Representation). Chicago: HAU Books. Pp. 89-111.

[參考]
Wagner, Roy
2018 The Logic of Invention. Ch.1 ("The Reciprocity of Perspectives"). Chicago: HAU Books. Pp. 1-18.



 
第9週
4/19  第三單元:Alternative Ontology (II): Marilyn Strathern

Holbraad, Martin, and Morten Axel Pedersen
2017 "Ch 3: Relational Ethnography: Strathern's Comparisons and Scales." In The Ontological Turn: An Anthropological Exposition. Cambridge University Press. pp. 110-156.

Strathern, Marilyn
2004[1991] Partial Connections. Altamira Press.


 
第10週
4/26  第四單元:Perspectivism (I)

Holbraad, Martin, and Morten Axel Pedersen
2017 "Ch4: Natural Relativism: Viveiros de Castro's Perspectivism and Multinaturalism." In The Ontological Turn: An Anthropological Exposition. Cambridge University Press. pp. 157-198.

Viveiros de Castro, Eduardo
2015 Cannibal Metaphysics. University of Minnesota Press. Part I. pp. 39-135.

報告:致亨、潔如


[參考]

鄭瑋寧
2017 書評:Viveiros de Castro, Eduardo. Edited and Translated by Peter Skafish(Cannibal Metaphysics, 2014)。臺灣人類學刊15(1): 172-177。
 
第11週
5/3  第四單元:Perspectivism (II)

Viveiros de Castro, Eduardo
1998 "Cosmological Deixis and Amerindian Perspectivism." Journal of the Royal anthropological Institute 4(3): 469-488.

2015 Cannibal Metaphysics. University of Minnesota Press. Part II. pp. 139-219.

報告:怡君、季寬

[參考]
Turner, Terry S.
2009 "The Crisis of Late Structuralism. Perspectivism and Animism: Rethinking Culture, Nature, Spirit, and Bodiliness." Tipití: Journal of the Society for the Anthropology of Lowland South America 7(1): 3-40.

Latour, Bruno
2009 "Perspectivism: 'Type' or 'Bomb'?" Anthropology Today 25(2): 1-2. 
 
第12週
5/10  停課溫書
 
第13週
5/17  第五單元:Tim Ingold

Ingold, Tim
2000 "Totemism, Animism and the Depiction of Animals." In The Perception of the Environment: Essays on Livelihood, Dwelling and Skill. Routledge. Pp. 111-131.

2006 "Rethinking the Animate, Re-animating Thought." Ethnos 71(1): 9-20. 

2011 “Anthropology Comes to Life.” In Being alive: Essays on movement, knowledge and description. Routledge. Pp. 3-14.

2011“Point, Line, Counterpoint: From Environment to Fluid Space." In Being Alive: Essays on Movement, Knowledge and Description. Routledge. Pp. 76-88.

報告:承庭、Anna

[參考]
Ingold, Tim
2004 "A Circumpolar Night's Dream." In Figured Worlds: Ontological Obstacles in Intercultural Relations. John Clammer, Sylvie Poirier, Eric Schwimmer, eds. University of Toronto Press. Pp. 25-57.

2016 "From Science to Art and Back Again: The Pendulum of An Anthropologist." Anuac 5(1): 5-23.

Moore, Jerry D.
2019 Visions of Culture : An Introduction to Anthropological Theories and Theorists. Part VIII: The Ontological Turn. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

本日須繳交期末報告題目與一頁以內的構思/摘要。 
第14週
5/24  第六單元:以物為導向的存有論(Object-oriented ontology, speculative realism)

莊雅仲老師專題演講:「老鷹回來了」--從新竹科學城到有機共和國

閱讀:
Holbraad, Martin, and Morten Axel Pedersen
2017 "Ch5: Things as Concepts." In The Ontological Turn: An Anthropological Exposition. Cambridge University Press. pp. 199-241.

Latour, Bruno
2005 "From Realpolitik to Dingpolitik or How to Make Things Public." In Bruno Latour and Peter Weibel eds, Making Things Public: Atmospheres of Democracy. Cambridge, Mass. : MIT Press. Pp. 4-31.

莊雅仲〈「老鷹回來了」--從新竹科學城到有機共和國〉

報告:廷嘉

[參考]
Graham Harman
2010 “Technology, Objects and Things in Heidegger." In Cambridge Journal of Economics 34: 17-25.

Henare, Amiria, Martin Holbraad, and Sari Wastell, eds.
2007 Thinking through Things: Theorising Artefacts Ethnographically. Routledge.

Martin Heidegger
1971 “The Thing." In Poetry, Language, Thought. Albert Hofstadter, trans. New York: Harper & Row. Pp. 163-180
 
第15週
5/31  第七單元:Latour

Latour, Bruno
1993[1991] We Have Never Been Modern. Harvard University Press. Ch.4.
2013 An Inquiry into Modes of Existence. Harvard University Press. (http://modesofexistence.org/)

此書的報告方式為:請搜尋http://modesofexistence.org/,回答以下問題:
(1)Latour所談的modes of existence是什麼?
(2)為何他要提出這個觀念?
(3)在他的整體知識計畫中,此概念扮演何種角色?

或者讀:
Introduction, Ch1, Ch2 (pp.1-67)
Ch10 (pp. 259-281)

報告:以翔、怡君


[參考]

Latour, Bruno
2014 "Another way to compose the common world." Hau: Journal of Ethnographic Theory 4 (1): 301–307.

Latour, Bruno
2013 "Biography of an inquiry: On a book about modes of existence." Social Studies of Science 43(2): 287-301.

Strathern, Marilyn
1996 "Cutting the network." Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 2(3): 517-535.

Ingold, Tim
2011 "When ANT meets SPIDER: Social theory for arthropods." In Being Alive: Essays on Movement, Knowledge and Description. Routledge. Pp. 89-94.


 
第16週
6/7  第八單元:Eduardo Kohn

Kohn, Eduardo
2013 How Forests Think: Toward an Anthropology beyond the Human. University of California Press.

(至少要讀Introduction, Ch.1-2)

報告:友璿、以翔 
第17週
6/14  端午節放假
 
第18週
6/21  第九單元:Politics 、總結、討論期末報告

Holbraad, Martin, and Morten Axel Pedersen
2017 "Conclusion." In The Ontological Turn: An Anthropological Exposition. Cambridge University Press. pp. 282-297.

De la Cadena, Marisol
2010 "Indigenous Cosmopolitics in the Andes: Conceptual reflections beyond“politics.” Cultural anthropology 25(2): 334-370.

Holbraad, Martin, and Morten Axel Pedersen
2014 "The Politics of Ontology." Theorizing the Contemporary, Fieldsights, January 13. https://culanth.org/fieldsights/series/the-politics-of-ontology(期刊專號)

Viveiros de Castro, Eduardo
2015 "Who Is Afraid of the Ontological Wolf? Some Comments on an Ongoing Anthropological Debate." The Cambridge Journal of Anthropology 33(1): 2-17.

報告:冠祐、祐睿

[參考]
Graeber, David.
2015 "Radical alterity is just another way of saying “reality” A reply to Eduardo Viveiros de Castro." HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory 5(2): 1-41.

Holbraad, Martin, and Morten Axel Pedersen
2017 "Ch6: After the Relation" and "Conclusion." In The Ontological Turn: An Anthropological Exposition. Cambridge University Press. pp. 242-281.

總結、討論期末報告