課程資訊
課程名稱
空間分析
Spatial Analysis 
開課學期
103-1 
授課對象
文學院  人類學研究所  
授課教師
陳瑪玲 
課號
Anth5020 
課程識別碼
125 U2000 
班次
 
學分
全/半年
半年 
必/選修
選修 
上課時間
星期三6,7,8(13:20~16:20) 
上課地點
水源人201 
備註
本課程中文授課,使用英文教科書。限三年級以上同學修習。專題考古學領域課程
限學士班三年級以上
總人數上限:20人 
Ceiba 課程網頁
http://ceiba.ntu.edu.tw/1031Anth5020_ 
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課程概述

空間是與其他社會文化現象或要素共同運作,尤其是與人的活動不可分,又依人的各種活動而有不同的抽象與具體實物的建構結果。在抽象層面上,可以是一社會關係(個人與個人、個人與群體、男與女等之關係)或上述的各種理念、認知等。抽象的空間概念受這些文化、社會面向等的形塑,並指引人的活動,同時安排這些活動而形成空間的形式或結構。而人們具體的活動所形成的空間結構,也形塑了物質在空間上的模式。舉凡聚落群在一特定區域所呈現的系統、單一聚落在一地點與其上的地形與資源的關係、聚落內的模式與形貌、單一建築結構、或物件散佈所呈現的形式等,都是實體面向的空間建構,其背後即蘊涵著這些抽象的空間建構與概念。考古學在形塑人類社會生活空間物質面向上的研究,在分析架構的操作與對象上可分為地景與聚落系統(Landscape and settlement system)、聚落模式與形貌(settlement pattern and configuration)、家戶(household)房舍或個別建築建構、以及活動區域(activity area)等四個不同的層次。這些層次雖有層級與次序之分,但此分析的層次與次序,仍會因著主題、目標與實際資料狀況而變化,甚而交錯互用。這些層次又以聚落與地景為主,是揭示上述所論及的文化、社會抽象面向的資訊為最終目的,因此本課程以此二層次的研究分析論述與方法為主要討論內容。 

課程目標
研究的基本層次可分數個,本課程的主旨即在介紹與討論各種不同層次之空間分析的方法與技術。
 
課程要求
中參考書目閱讀口頭報告(20)、課中討論參與(10%)、學期中作業(70%)。 
預期每週課後學習時數
 
Office Hours
 
參考書目
空間分析的基本概念
Carr, Christopher
1984 The Nature of Organization of Intrasite Archeological Records and Spatial Analytic Approaches to Their Investigation. Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 7:103-133, edited by Michael B. Schiffer. Acdemic Press, New York.
Carr, Christopher
1985 Alternative models, alternative techniques: variable approaches to intrasite spatial analysis. In For Concordance in Archaeological Analysis: Bridging Data Structure, Quantitative Technique, and Theory, pp302-329, edited by Christopher Carr. Westport Press, Kansas City.
黃應貴
1995 導論,空間、力與社會 pp1-37,中央研究院民族所。
Parsons, Jeffrey R.
1972 Archaeological Settlement Patterns. Annual Review of Anthropology 1:127-150

研究設計、田野策略、與抽樣技術(一):
Redman, Charles L.
1973 Multistage Fieldwork and Analytical Techniques. American Antiquity 38(1): 61-79.
Redman, Charles L.
1987 Surface Collection, Sampling, and Research Design: A Retrospective.
American Antiquity 52(2): 249-265.
Thomas, David Hurst (Third edition)
1998 Chapter 4 in Archaeology. Harcourt Brace & Company, Florida.


研究設計、田野策略、與抽樣技術(二):
Lightfood, Kent G.
1987 Regional Surveys in the Eastern United States: The Strengths and Weakness if Implementing Subsurface Testing Programs. American Antiquity 51(3): 484-504.
*Schott, Michael
1985 Shovel-Test Sampling as a Site Discovery Technique: a Case Study from
Michigan. Journal of Field Archaeology 12:457-468.
Peterson, Christian E. and Robert D. Drennan
2005 Communities, Settlements, Sites, and Survey: Regional-Scale Analysis of Prehistoric Human Interaction. American Antiquity 70(1): 5-30.
陳瑪玲
2002 遺址內部空間分析--船帆石遺址。國立臺彎大學考古人類學刊 58:36-58
2005 Saqacengalj聚落形態與形貌—一個舊社的考古學研究。國立臺彎大學考古人類學刊 63

形成過程與後沈積過程的效應(Post-depositional Effects):
Barton, C.M. and G.A. Clark
1993 Cultural and Natural Formation Processes in Late Quaternary Cave and Rockshelter Sites of Western Europe and the Near East. In Formation Processes in Archaeological Context, ed. by P. Goldberg, D.T. Nash, and M.D. Petraglia, pp33-52. Prehistory Press, Madison.
Dibble, Harold L., Philip G. Chase, Shannon P. McPherron, and Alain Tuffreau
1997 Testing the Reality of a “Living Floor” with Archaeological Data. American
Antiquity 62(4): 629-651.
Gregg, Susan, Keith Kintigh, and Robert Whallon
1987 Linking Ethnoarchaeological Interpertation and Arcaeological Data: The Sensitivity of Spatial Analytical Methods to Post-depositional Disturbance. In Press.

形成過程與民族考古學資料、空間分析:
Binford, Lewis R, M.G.L. Mills, and Nancy M. Stone
1988 Hyena Scavenging Behavior and Its Implications for the Interpretation of Faunal Assemblages from FLK 22 (the Zinj Floor) at Olduvia Groge. Journal of Anthropological Archeology 7:99-135.
*Deal, Michael
1985 Household Pottery Disposal in the Maya Highlands: an Ethnoarchaeological Interpretation. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 4: 243-291.
*陳玉美
1995 夫妻、家屋與聚落:蘭嶼雅美族的空間觀念。黃應貴編,空間、力與社
會,中央研究院民族所,PP:133-167。
*蔣斌 李靜怡
1995 北排灣族家屋的空間結構與意義,黃應貴編空間、力與社會,中央研
究院民族所PP:167-212。
Siegal, Peter E. and Peter G.roe
1985 Shipibo Archaeo-Ethnography: Site Formation Processes and Archaeological Interpretation. World Archaeology 18(1): 96-115.
Stevenson, M.
1982 Toward an Understanding of Site Abandonment Behavior. Journal of
Anthropological Archaeology 1(3): 237-265.

活動區域(Activity Area)分析I:
Lavachery, Philippe and Els Cornelissen
2000 Natural and Cultural Spatial Patterning in the Lake Holocene Deposits of
Shum Laka Rock Shelter, Cameroon. Journal of Field Archaeology
27(2): 153-168.
Parnell, J. Jacob and Richard E. Terry
2002 Soil Chemical Analysis Applied as an Interpretive Tool for Ancient Human Activities in Piedras Negras, Guatemala. Journal of Archaeological Science 29: 379-404.
Wells, E. Christian, Terry, E. Richard et al.
2000 Chemical Analyses of Ancient Anthrosols in Residential Areas at Piedras Negras, Guatemala. Journal of Archaeological Science 27:449-462.

開放式遺址(Open Site)的分析:
Kroll, Ellen, nd glynn L. L.Isaac
1984 Configurations of Artifacts and Bones at Early Pleistocene Sites in East
Africa. In Intrasite Spatial Analysis in Archaeology edited by Harold J. Hietala, pp.4-31. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Spurling, Brian, and Brian Hayden
1983 Ethnoarchaeology and Intrasite Spatial Analysis: A Case Study from the Australian Western Desert. In Intrasite Spatial Analysis in Archaeology edited by Harold J. Hietala, pp.224-241. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Simek, Jan F.
1987 Spatial Order and Behavioral Change in the French Paleolithic. American Antiquity. 61(321): 25-40.
Simek, Jan F., and Roy R. Larick
1984 The Recognition of Multiple Spatial Patterns: A Case Study from the
French Paleolithic. Journal of Archaeological Science 10:165-180.

房舍層次(Room, Household Level)分析:
Ciolek-Torrello, Richard
1984 An Alternative Model of Room Function at Grasshopper Pueolo, Arizona. Intrasite Spatial analysis in Archaeology edited by Harold J. Hietala, pp.127-153. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Kahn, Jennifer
2003 Maohi Social Organization at the Micro-Scale: Household Archaeology in the ‘Opunohu Valley, Mo’orea, Society Islands (French Polynesia). Pacific Archaeology: Assessments and Prospects (2003): 353-367
Metcalf, D. and K.M. Heath
1990 Microrefuse and Site Structure: the Hearths and Floors of the Heartbreak Hotel. American Antiquity 55(4): 781-796.

聚落型態與社區(Community)層次的分析I:
Chang, K.C.
1958 Study of the Neolithic Social Grouping-- Example from the New World. American Anthropologist 60 :298-334。
1972 Settlement Patterns in Archaeology, in An Addison-Wesley Module in Anthropology. Module24: 1-26.
*Lowell, Julie C.
1987 The Social Use of Space at Turkey Creek Pueblo: An Architectural Analysis. The Kiva 53(2): 85-100.
Oetelaar, Gerld A.
1993 Identifying Site Structure in the Archaeological Record: an Illinois
Mississippian Example. American Antiquity 58(4): 662-687.
陳瑪玲
2005 Saqacengalj聚落形態與形貌—一個舊社的考古學研究。國立臺彎大學考古人類學刊 63

聚落型態與社區(Community)層次的分析II:
Hodder, Ian and Craig Cessford
2004 Daily Practice and Social Memory at Catalhoyuk. American Antiquity 69(1): 17-40.
Mobley-Tanaka, Jeannette L.
1996 Gender and Ritual Space during the Pithouse to Pueblo Transition:
Subterrance Meaning Rooms in the North American Southwest. American
Antiquity 62(3): 437-448.
Stone, Tammy
2000 Prehistoric Community Integration in the Point of Pines Region of Arizona.
Journal of Field Archaeology 27(2): 197-208.

聚落系統與生業體系:
Binford, L.
1980 Willow Smoke and Dogs’ Tails: Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems and Archaeological Site formation. American Antiquity 45(1): 4-20.
*Ferring, C. Reid
1984 Intrasite Spatial Patterning: Its Role in Settlement-Subsistence Systems Analysis. In Intrasite Spatial Analysis in Archaeology edited by Harold J. Hietala, pp.116-126. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Sutton, Mark Q.
1998 Cluster Analysis of Paleofecal Data Sets: A Test of Late Perhistoric
Settlement and Subsistence Patterns in the Northern Coachella Valley,
California. American Antiquity 63(1): 86-107.
Wells, E. Christian, Glen E. Rice, and John C. Ravesloot
2004 Peopling Landscape Between Villages in the Middle Gila River of Central Arizona, American Antiquity 69(4): 627-652

Landscape
Knapp, A. Bernard and Wendy Ashmore
1995 Archaeological Landscapes: Constructed, Conceptualized, and Ideational. in Archaeologies of Landscape: Contemporary Perspectives, ed. by A. Bernard Knapp and Wendy Ashmore, pp1-30.
Potter, James M.
2004 The Creation of Person, the Creation of Place: Hunting Landscape in the American Southwest. American Antiquity 69(2): 322-338.
Van Dyke, Ruth M.
2004 Memory, Meaning, and Masonry: the Late Bonito Chacoan Landscape. American Antiquity 69(3): 413-431.
*Thomas, Julian
2001 Archaeologies of Place and Landscape in Archaeological Theory Today, ed. Ian Hodder, pp165-186. Polity Press, Cambridge.
 
指定閱讀
待補 
評量方式
(僅供參考)
   
課程進度
週次
日期
單元主題
第1週
9/17  課程介紹(Introduction) 
第2週
9/24  空間分析基本理論與原則(Principle and Theories of Spatial Analysis) 
第3週
10/01  研究設計、田野策略、與抽樣技術(Research Design, Fieldwork Strategy, and Sampling Technology) 
第4週
10/08  形成過程的研究(Formation Process) 
第5週
10/15  GIS 工作坊 
第6週
10/22  聚落分析一--岩蔭類型/無房舍結構(Settlement Analysis I: Rock Shelter & Open site) 
第7週
10/29  聚落分析二--房舍結構(Settlement Analysis II: Site with House Structures) 
第8週
11/05  聚落分析三--社區、聚落形貌(Settlement Analysis III: Community & Settlement Configuration)
(調11/4 晚上) 
第9週
11/12  實習一(遺址內部空間分析)(Practice and Home Work I) 
第10週
11/19  聚落分析三──聚落模式、系統與生業體系(Settlement Pattern, System and Subsistence System) 
第11週
11/26  聚落分析四──聚落模式、系統與社會政治體系(Settlement Pattern, System, and Social or Political System) 
第12週
12/03  實習二(疊置分析)(Practice & Home Work II) 
第13週
12/10  地景考古學的發展與概念(the Development and Concepts of Landscape Archaeology)
(調12/9晚上) 
第14週
12/17  地景研究一--防禦性議題(Landscape I: Defensive topics) 
第15週
12/24  地景研究二--人與自然資源(Landscape II: Human Population & Natural Resources) 
第16週
12/31  實習三(緩衝、坡向、坡度、視域分析)(Practice & Home Work III) 
第17週
1/07  地景研究三--人群的認知體系(Landscape III: Human Group & Their Cognition) 
第18週
1/13  實習四(遺址分布空間分析)(Practice & Home Work IV)