課程資訊
課程名稱
海洋溶解有機物導論
Introduction to Marine Dissolved Organic Matter 
開課學期
111-1 
授課對象
理學院  海洋化學組  
授課教師
温良碩 
課號
Ocean5047 
課程識別碼
241 U1870 
班次
 
學分
2.0 
全/半年
半年 
必/選修
選修 
上課時間
星期二1,2(8:10~10:00) 
上課地點
海研115 
備註
總人數上限:25人 
 
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課程概述

DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER (DOM) IN THE OCEAN PLAY A VITAL ROLE IN REGULATING THE GLOBAL CARBON AND NITROGEN CYCLES. UNDERSTANDING THE PROCESSES INVOLVED IN THE TRANSFORMATIONS OF CARBON, PHOSPHORUS, NITROGEN, AND OTHER MAJOR ELEMENTS IN THE OCEANS HAS BEEN A MAJOR INTEREST OF OCEANOGRAPHERS OVER THE PAST DECADE. THE PRIMARY GOAL OF THIS COURSE IS THE DISTRIBUTION AND BIOGEOCHEMISTRY OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN THE OCEANS WITH EMPHASIS AND PARTICULAR FOCUS ON ELEMENTAL CYCLING. AS COMPLEXES EXIST IN THE MARINE WATERS UNDERGO A NUMBER OF BIOCHEMICAL, PHOTOCHEMICAL, PHYSICAL TRANSFORMATIONS FROM PHOTOSYNTHESIS THROUGH DIAGENESIS AND RE-MINERALIZATION, INTERACTION WITH TRACE METALS, ISOTOPIC FRACTIONATION, MICROBIAL ALTERATIONS, AT INTERFACES SUCH AS THOSE BETWEEN LAND AND SEA, SEDIMENT AND WATER, PARTICLE AND BULK SOLUTION. FOR DETAILED TOPICS INCLUDE CARBOHYDRATES, PROTEINS, LIPIDS, HUMICS, PHEROMONES, AND THEREFORE COMPOUND-SPECIFIC STUDY OF MARINE ORGANIC MATTER PROCESSES PLEASE REFER TO OTHER LECTURE IN 『ORGANIC GEOCHEMISTRY』.
(LECTURE I): WHY DISSOLVED ORGANICS MATTER

(LECTURE II): ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR DOM

(LECTURE III): CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND REACTIVITY

(LECTURE IV): PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION PROCESSES

(LECTURE V):DYNAMICS OF DON

(LECTURE V I): DYNAMICS OF DOP

(LECTURE VI I):MARINE COLLOIDS AND TRACE METALS

(LECTURE VIII):CARBON ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION

(LECTURE IX): THE PHOTOCHEMISTRY AND CYCLING OF CARBON, SULFUR, NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS

(LECTURE X):
CHROMOPHORIC DOM IN THE COASTAL ENVIRONMENT

(LECTURE XI): CHROMOPHORIC DOM IN THE OPEN OCEAN

(LECTURE XII): DOM IN THE COASTAL ZONE

(LECTURE XIII):SEDIMENT PORE WATERS

(LECTURE XIV): DOC IN THE ARCTIC OCEAN

(LECTURE XV):DOC IN THE GLOBAL OCEAN CARBON CYCLE

(LECTURE XVI): MODELING DOM BIOGEOCHEMISTRY. 

課程目標
MARINE DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IS A COMPLEX MIXTURE OF MOLECULES OF DIVERSE ORIGINS FOUND IN SEAWATER. MARINE DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER (DOM) IS IMPORTANT IN THE GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE AND MARINE FOOD CHAINS, AND IT AFFECTS THE PENETRATION OF LIGHT, THE EXCHANGE OF GASES AND THE AVAILABILITY OF TRACE METALS AND OTHER NUTRIENTS TO BIOTA. THE WORLD OCEAN IS THE LARGEST RESERVOIRS OF ORGANIC CARBON ON EARTH, AND MOST OF THE ACTIVELY CYCLING ORGANIC CARBON RESIDES IN THE OPERATIONALLY-DEFINED DISSOLVED PHASE. THE AMOUNT OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON IN SEAWATER IS SIMILAR TO THE AMOUNT IN ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE, SO UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS INFLUENCING THE PRODUCTION AND RE-MINERALIZATION OF MARINE DOM IS OF GREAT SIGNIFICANCE TO THE GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE AND CLIMATE CHANGE. THE PRIMARY SOURCES OF MARINE DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER ARE PHYTOPLANKTON. MARINE DOM IS RELEASED FROM PHYTOPLANKTON MOSTLY BY THREE DIFFERENT MECHANISMS: DIRECT EXTRA-CELLULAR RELEASE DURING GROWTH; RELEASE DURING PREDATION BY GRAZING ORGANISMS; AND RELEASE DURING VIRAL LYSIS OF CELLS. THE MAJOR MECHANISM FOR THE REMOVAL OF MARINE DOM IS CONSUMPTION BY HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA. THE TRANSFER OF CARBON AND ASSOCIATED ELEMENTS FROM MARINE DOM TO BACTERIA FORMS THE BASE OF THE MICROBIAL FOOD WEB IN THE OCEAN. IT IS ESTIMATED THAT ABOUT HALF OF THE CARBON FIXED DURING PHOTOSYNTHESIS BY MARINE PHYTOPLANKTON PASSES THROUGH DOM AND THE MICROBIAL FOOD WEB. THIS COMPONENT OF MARINE DOM IS VERY REACTIVE AND CYCLES RAPIDLY, AND INCLUDES MANY COMMON BIO-CHEMICALS, SUCH AS AMINO ACIDS AND CARBOHYDRATES. THESE BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES AND CYCLING OF DOM ARE MOST RAPID IN THE UPPER WATER COLUMN WHERE THERE IS SUFFICIENT SUNLIGHT FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS. PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDATION OF DOM TO CARBON DIOXIDE AND CARBON MONOXIDE ALSO OCCURS IN THE SURFACE OCEAN, AND RECENT ESTIMATES INDICATE THIS PROCESS IS A QUANTITATIVELY SIGNIFICANT COMPONENT OF THE OCEAN CARBON CYCLE.
MOST MARINE DOM IS PRODUCED AND CONSUMED IN THE UPPER OCEAN. THE CONCENTRATION OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON IN THE DEEP OCEAN IS ABOUT HALF OF THE CONCENTRATION FOUND IN THE SURFACE OCEAN. RELATIVELY LITTLE IS KNOWN ABOUT BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES AND MARINE DOM CYCLING IN THE DEEP OCEAN, BUT SEVERAL DIFFERENT TYPES OF DATA INDICATE DEEP MARINE DOM IS RESISTANT TO BIOLOGICAL UTILIZATION AND DEGRADATION. A RELATIVELY SMALL FRACTION OF DEEP MARINE DOM IS RECOGNIZABLE BIOCHEMICALS, AND ITS CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND NATURE ARE LARGELY UNKNOWN. MIXING OF THE WORLD OCEAN OCCURS ON A MILLENNIAL TIME SCALE, AND THERE IS EVIDENCE INDICATING PHOTOCHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES OCCURRING IN SURFACE WATERS ENHANCE THE OXIDATION OF DOM FROM THE DEEP OCEAN.

BECAUSE THE PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES RELATE TO THE MATERIAL TRANSPORT IN THE SEA, IT CAN BE SAID THE DOM IS A GENUINELY INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDY. THIS COURSE CLARIFIES THE DISTRIBUTION, COMPOSITION, AND QUANTITY OF DOM IN MARINE WATERS, AND ITS IMPORTANT PROCESSES FOR MATERIAL TRANSPORT AND ELEMENTAL CYCLING IN THE OCEAN. 
課程要求
 
預期每週課後學習時數
2 hours 
Office Hours
另約時間 
參考書目
 
指定閱讀
Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter (2nd edition), Dennis A. Hansell and Craig A. Carlson 
評量方式
(僅供參考)
 
No.
項目
百分比
說明
1. 
Attendance 
20% 
 
2. 
Midterm Exam 
40% 
 
3. 
Final Exam 
40% 
 
 
針對學生困難提供學生調整方式
 
上課形式
作業繳交方式
考試形式
其他
由師生雙方議定
課程進度
週次
日期
單元主題
第1週
2022/09/06  課程說明與簡介Scheduling & Introduction  
第2週
2022/09/13  有機物的重要性Why Dissolved Organics Matter  
第3週
2022/09/20  有機物特性與循環Chemical Characterizations & Cycling  
第4週
2022/09/27  有機炭及有機物來源與反應Sources, Sinks, Reactivity and Budgets  
第5週
2022/10/04  有機氮變化Dynamics of DON  
第6週
2022/10/11  有機磷變化Dynamics of DOP  
第7週
2022/10/18  碳同位素應用Carbon Isotopic Composition  
第8週
2022/10/25  期中考作業Mid-term Exam/Report  
第9週
2022/11/01  有機物穩定性Long-Term Stability of DOM  
第10週
2022/11/08  有機物光化學反應Marine Photochemistry of Organic Matter  
第11週
2022/11/15  海膠Marine Microgels  
第12週
2022/11/22  有機物光學性質The Optical Properties of DOM  
第13週
2022/11/29  陸緣有機物質Terrestrial and Riverine DOM  
第14週
2022/12/06  沉積物間隙水有機物Sediment Pore Waters  
第15週
2022/12/13  地中海與極區有機物DOM in Arctic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea  
第16週
2022/12/20  Final Exam/Report