課程概述 
This course is designed based on the teaching method of “authentic learning” to guide students to learn about the applications of statistics in marine chemistry. Basic statistics will be introduced with realworld marine chemical data sets. This course is complementary to the mandatory course “NTU Fundamentals of Oceanic Statistics” (基礎海洋統計) and to the Marine Chemistry Laboratory (海洋化學實習) for students in the chemical oceanography division.
A variety of data set from analytical methods including spectrophotometry, chromatography, mass spectrometry, chemiluminescent, fluorimeter, optical sensor and pH sensors, commonly used by chemical oceanographers. While the principles of analysis differs significantly among analytical methods, it is important that students be versatile in dealing with various data set. For example, spectrophotometry is a basic method for the analyses of marine micro nutrients, its sensitivity and stability can be directly estimated based on the extinction coefficient—the intensiveness of the color. The limit of detection is a fixed value. While other instruments such as a mass spectrometer, can be tuned in a various ways to provide a better sensitivities, different labs report different limits of detection. While the cost of an analysis using a spectrophotometer is only 1/1000 of the cost using a mass spectrometer, by using statistic tools and the combination of knowledge in analytical chemistry, students will learn to choose the most suitable method for their research.
The course will start by having students to look for problems in a reported data set. For example, a figure of data points without the report of error bars. Students will have to explore possible ways to estimate the errors. We will then discuss how to design experiments to measure the uncertainties. The course will then provide data from spectrophotometry, chromatography, mass spectrometry, chemiluminescent, fluorimeter, optical sensor and pH sensors, for students to report the data in a statistically acceptable way. For example, students will have to come up with a way to calibrate the instrumental data—converting intensity into meaningful concentrations. Provide a realworld problem for students to solve. For example, what can students do when two analytical instruments such as an oxygen sensor and a colorimetric method do not yield the same concentration?
The final 1/3 of the course, we will explore possible ways to deal with a massive data set. For example, with the advance in mass spectrometry, each sample can be easily analyzed for the concentrations (or intensities) for more than 20 compounds. Are there helpful static methods to help us look for patterns in the variations among samples? The applications of principle component analysis and factor analysis will be introduced/reviewed. Marine chemical data from the literatures or observatory reports will be used for students to practice. At the end of the course, students will be asked to gather data set and to use exploratory factor analysis to explain the correlation/covariance of the data.
