歐盟專題 EU Seminar
EU Institutions, Decision Making, Governance
EU Economic and Monetary Union
EU External Economic Relations
EU Human Right Policy
EU Environmental Policy
Mette Eilstrup-Sangiovanni eds., Debates on European Integration: A Reader ( Plagrave, 2006)
PART I: INTERWAR AND POSTWAR IDEAS OF EUROPE
Introduction: Pre-Theories of International Integration; M.Eilstrup-Sangiovanni (pp.17-34)
(83dc) For a Free United Europe: A Draft Manifesto; A. Spinelli & E. Rossi
(83dc) A Working Peace System; D. Murray
(83dc) Political Community and the North Atlantic Area: International Organization in the Light of Historical Experience; K. Deutsch et al
PART II: THEORISING THE COMMON MARKET: NEO-FUNCTIONALISM AND ITS CRITICS
Introduction: Neo-functionalism and Its Critics; M. Eilstrup-Sangiovanni (pp.89-104)
(83dc) The Uniting of Europe: Political, Social and Economic Forces 1950-1957; E. Haas
(83dc) The Political Dynamics of European Economic Integration; L. Lindberg
(83dc) Obstinate or Obsolete?: The Fate of the Nation-State; S. Hoffman
(83dc) Regional Integration: Reflections on a Decade of Theoretical Efforts; R. Hansen
PART III: THE 1992 PROJECT: SUPRANATIONALISM VS. INTERGOVERNMENTALIST BARGAINING
Introduction: The 1992 Project: The Revival of Neofunctionalism and the Liberal Intergovernmentalist Challenge; M. Eilstrup-Sangiovanni (181-203)
(83dc) 1992: Recasting the European Bargain; W.Sandholtz & J.Zysman
(83dc) Europe Before the Court: A Political Theory of Legal Integration; A.M.Burley & W.Mattli
(83dc) The Politics of Legal Integration in the European Union; G. Garrett
(83dc) Preferences and Power in the European Community: A Liberal Intergovernmentalist Approach; A. Moravcsik
(83dc) The Path to European Integration: A Historical Institutionalist Analysis; P. Pierson
PART IV: THE EUROPEAN POLITY: ACTORS, MULTILEVEL GOVERNANCE AND THE 'LOW POLITICS' OF REGULATION
Introduction: Europe as a Political System: Comparative Politics and Governance Approaches to Integration; M. Eilstrup-Sangiovanni (327-341)
(83dc) The Study of the European Union II: The 'New Governance' Agenda and its Rival'; S. Hix
(83dc) European Integration from the 1980s: State-Centric vs Multi-Level Governance; G. Marks, L. Hooghe & K. Blank
(83dc) The Rise of the Regulatory State in Europe; G. Majone
PART V: NON-RATIONALIST INTEGRATION THEORY
Introduction: The Constructivist Turn in European Integration Studies; M. Eilstrup-Sangiovanni (393-405)
(83dc) Social Constructivism and Integration; J. Checkel
(83dc) 'Speaking Europe': The Politics of Integration Discourse; T. Diez
(83dc) Does Constructivism Subsume Neofunctionalism?'; E. Haas
PART VI: THE FUTURE OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION STUDIES
(83dc) The Future of European Studies: Integration Theory, EU Studies and Social Science; B. Rosamond (pp. 448-460)
(83dc) The Future of European Integration Studies: The Road Ahead; M. Eilstrup-Sangiovanni (pp.461-470)
篇名 Asymmetric federalism between globalization and regionalization
作者 Klaus von Beyme
出處 Journal of European Public Policy 12:3 June 2005: 432–447
摘要 The question ‘who speaks for the Europeans?’ involves a basic contradiction in European constitutional engineering: federalist autonomy developed against democratic representation on the basis of popular sovereignty of equal citizens. Working on a European Constitution includes the search for a fair balance between the modes of representation. This paper shows, however, that the balance remains precarious. Asymmetries in the de iure institutional settings and in de facto social and economic development permanently reshuffle the balance. Older theories of federalism in the age of classical modernism started from a rational model of symmetric states’ rights. Postmodernist thinking with its patchwork scenarios developed more tolerance towards asymmetries. The neo-liberal paradigm leads away from ‘participatory federalism’ in the direction of a ‘federalism of competition’. In the early federations the poor territories in a ‘class struggle from below’ asked for subsidies from the centre. In recent federations a ‘class struggle from above’ is developing. The rich states fight for asymmetries because they feel punished if they have to subsidize the poorer areas.
篇名 Federalism and the European party system
作者 Lori Thorlakson
出處 Journal of European Public Policy 12:3 June 2005: 468–487
摘要 Applying a framework from comparative federalism to the European party system requires examining the ways in which the European and national party systems are linked, through congruent or incongruent party system structures and through party organizations that either integrate or separate the two arenas of political competition. The European party system exhibits two forms of incongruence.
The first is a high degree of party strength in some national party systems for parties that lie outside the ideological range of the core party families in the European Parliament. The second is the emergence of parties that compete only in European parliamentary elections on European issues, signalling the politicization of a European integration cleavage.
篇名 Federalism in the European Union: the view from below (if there is such a thing)
作者 Thomas Christin, Simon Hug and Tobias Schulz
出處 Journal of European Public Policy 12:3 June 2005: 488–508
摘要 As a federal system the European Union (EU) has to deal in one way or another with the distribution of competencies. While conflicting views about this thorny issue are ventured in the literature, we emphasize in this paper the implications for political accountability. At the present time, most authors would concur, political accountability due to the institutional structure and the complex decision-making processes is mixed at best. Thus, we propose to explore the ways in which the distribution of competencies is viewed from below, namely by the EU citizens. As one might expect, we find evidence that this view is not yet as clear-cut as one might hope.
篇名 Supranational institution-building in the European Union: a comparison
of the European Court of Justice and the European Central Bank
作者 Dorothee Heisenberg and Amy Richmond
出處 Journal of European Public Policy 9:2 April 2002: 201–218
摘要 The completion of the ECB provides an opportunity to compare how the EU builds new institutions. We compare two institutions (the bank and the court) which have a similar supranational status, but whose creation differed signi cantly. We examine the genesis of the two institutions and ask how the workings of these institutions have been affected by the initial mandate. We pose the question of whether the ECB will lend itself to a realist interpretation about the institution’s independence from member state interference similar to existing interpretations of the ECJ (Garrett 1995). Because of the different path set by the institutional design of the ECB, we conclude that the neorealist analysis of the ECJ–member state relationship is unlikely to resonate in the case of the ECB.
We argue that the institutional creation of the ECJ and the ECB differed in four relevant ways: 1) the intended supranationalism of the initial design; 2) the speci city of the institution’s mandate; 3) the institution’s relationship to its national counterpart; and 4) institutional copying from the national to the supranational level. We nd that each of these elements has signi cant implications for the institutions’ autonomy.
篇名 The Institutional Foundations of Intergovernmentalism and Supranationalism in the European Union
作者 George Tsebelis; Geoffrey Garrett
出處 International Organization, Vol. 55, No. 2. (Spring, 2001), pp. 357-390.
篇名 Codecision and the European Commission: a study of declining influence?
作者 Charlotte Burns
出處 Journal of European Public Policy 11:1 February 2004: 1–18
摘要 This article analyses the Commission’s role and influence under the codecision procedure, by focusing upon a case study of the adoption of the novel foods regulation. It argues that the Commission is neglected in the empirical literature on codecision and that its role is misrepresented by theorists who have a tendency to overstate its weakness. The article finds that the Commission exercises both agenda-setting and gate-keeping power under codecision and identifies a number of conditions that may shape the Commission’s influence in other cases.
篇名 Co-managing programme implementation: conceptualizing the European Commission’s role in policy execution
作者 Michael W. Bauer
出處 Journal of European Public Policy 13:5 August 2006: 717–735
摘要 This article presents a concept aimed towards a better understanding of the European Commission’s role during the implementation of European policies. This constitutes a research deficit. While our knowledge about the Commission’s ability to set the agenda and to influence decision-making has continuously advanced, we lag behind in understanding the Commission’s behaviour in policy implementation. The article proposes a mechanism that explains Commission acting throughout policy execution on the basis of resource interdependencies. It argues that the Commission has an intrinsic motivation to overcome informational asymmetries during policy implementation in order to stabilize its ordinary functions in policy drafting and decision-making. The central theoretical argument is thus based on the vulnerability of the Commission due to its lack of a formal say in national policy execution while it is held responsible for implementation deficiencies by the other European institutions. In order to diminish that dilemma – which occurs especially when European programmes stretch over repetitive policy cycles – the Commission needs what is termed implementation management capacity (IMC).
篇名 Technical or political? The working groups of the EU Council of Ministers
作者 Eves Fouilleux, Jacques de Maillard and Andy Smith
出處 Journal of European Public Policy 12:4 August 2005: 609–623
摘要 The Council is too often depicted as the battleground for intermittent clashes between national ministers. Based upon case studies of legislation produced in five ‘First Pillar’ sectors, the research presented here has explored the submerged, and much larger, part of this institutional ‘iceberg’: Council working groups. It does so by examining how members of these entities interact with civil servants in COREPER and ministers, on the one hand, and representatives of the Commission and the European Parliament, on the other. Contrary to many practitioner or formalist accounts, the principal finding is that working groups do not operate solely on a ‘technical level’. Instead, they are vital arenas through which the ambiguous nature of politics in the European Union heavily influences negotiating processes and legislative outcomes.
篇名 The agenda-shaping powers of the EU Council Presidency
作者 Jonas Tallberg
出處 Journal of European Public Policy 10:1 February 2003: 1–19
摘要 Existing literature is overwhelmingly sceptical about the capacity of the Council Presidency to shape the EU agenda. The Presidency’s ability to promote private concerns is considered highly limited and, typically, the Presidency is depicted as a ‘responsabilite´ sans pouvior’. This article challenges the conventional wisdom on theoretical and empirical grounds. Theoretically, it develops a conceptual framework that expands the notion of influence, by distinguishing between three forms of agenda-shaping: agenda-setting, agenda-structuring and agenda exclusion.
In this exercise, I draw on theories of bargaining and decision-making developed in international relations and American politics. Empirically, the article provides an inventory of the instruments available to the Presidency within each form of agenda-shaping, as well as illustrative cases that demonstrate how Presidencies regularly influence outcomes in EU policy-making. Illustrations are drawn primarily from the six consecutive Presidencies in the period 1999–2001: Germany, Finland, Portugal, France, Sweden and Belgium.
篇名 Transcending intergovernmentalism? Identity and role perceptions of national officials in EU decision-making
作者 Morten Egeberg
出處 Journal of European Public Policy 6:3 September 1999: 456- 474
摘要 Focusing on the identity and role perceptions of national officials in EU policy-making, intergovernmentalism may be transcended in two different ways. First, as asserted by neo-functionalists, national élites may shift their loyalty from a national to a supranational level owing to the effect of EU institutions. Second, as could perhaps be interpreted as the argument of the functionalists, functional role orientations acquired in sectoral ministries and specialized agencies at the national level may be sustained in the cross-border interactions of national officials. Based on an organizational and institutional perspective, the identity and role conceptions, and their conditions, are analysed by applying interview data from forty-seven national transport ministry officials in five small member states.
篇名 What determines influence? Assessing conditions for decisionmaking influence of interest groups in the EU
作者 Irina Michalowitz
出處 Journal of European Public Policy 14:1 January 2007: 132–151
摘要 The influence of interest groups is an important question especially with regard to the role of interest groups for democratic decision-making. Research on EU interest intermediation still lacks analysis of what kind of influence and under which conditions interest groups actually exert influence. This article addresses the question of influence on the basis of an analytical model concentrating on the degree of conflict, structural conditions of interest exertion and the type of interest pursued. These factors are assumed to constitute crucial conditions for the degree to which interest groups manage to change legislative acts. On the basis of three case studies of decision-making in the fields of IT and transport in the EU, the article highlights the dominance of technical over directional influence and the crucial role of the decision-makers’ initial interests. KEY WORDS Democracy; information and communications technology; influence; interest groups; lobbying; transport.
篇名 Who Has Power in the EU? The Commission, Council and Parliament in Legislative Decision making
作者 ROBERT THOMSON AND MADELEINE HOSLI
出處 JCMS 2006 Volume 44. Number 2. pp. 391–417
摘要 What is the relative power of the European Commission, the Council of Ministers and the European Parliament (EP) in the European Union (EU)? Both scholars and practitioners of EU affairs provide different answers to this seemingly straightforward question. In this article, we examine the balance of power among these three actors in the context of legislative decision-making. We report the results of a small survey among a select group of practitioners of EU affairs. Their judgements on the relative power of the three organizations vary considerably. We distinguish between two contrasting views: a Council-centric view that attributes more power to the Council of Ministers than to the Commission and Parliament, and a supranational view that attributes large amounts of power to the supranational organizations relative to the Council. To test the veracity of these alternative views, we incorporate them into two variants of a simple and testable bargaining model that makes forecasts of decision outcomes, based on information on actors’ preferences. The models are then applied to a dataset that includes information on EU actors’ policy positions on 162 controversial issues of which the decision outcomes are known. The variant of the bargaining model incorporating the Council-centric view provides significantly more accurate forecasts.
篇名 Agenda-setting in the European Union: a theoretical exploration and agenda for research
作者 Sebastiaan Princen
出處 Journal of European Public Policy 14:1 January 2007: 21–38
摘要 Although agenda-setting processes are important for understanding policy-making in the European Union, the literature on EU governance has devoted little explicit attention to them. Drawing on studies in international relations, EU governance and agenda-setting in domestic politics, this article identifies some key elements of agenda-setting processes in the EU and formulates an agenda for future research. It argues that agenda-setting in the EU can best be seen as the outcome of strategic decisions by political actors to shift issues to the venue that is most favorable to them. While building on models of agenda-setting that were developed in a domestic context, it identifies a number of institutional and political characteristics that are
specific to EU agenda-setting processes.
篇名 International embeddedness of European multi-level governance
作者 Michele Knodt
出處 Journal of European Public Policy 11:4 August 2004: 701-719
摘要 The focus of this article is to find out how governance functions in an expanded multi-level system. The aim is to analyse institutional change within the EU which is caused hy the EU's international embeddedness. The paper develops and empirically tests the hypothesis that embeddedness of the EU within an international context does not only affect the formal organization of the European decision-making process. It includes effects on routines, guiding ideas and concepts of legitimate order as well. The World Trade Organization (WTO) serves as a case to analyse these effects. The empirical research covers the overall European institutional changes within the different issue-areas of WTO (GATT, TRIPS and GATS), including its dispute settlement system, as well as the discussion about the involvement of civil society in the WTO's decision-making and its effects on the EU.
篇名 Modes of governance: towards a conceptual clarification
作者 Oliver Treib, Holger Bähr and Gerda Falkner
出處 Journal of European Public Policy 14:1 January 2007: 1–20
摘要 Recently, political science has seen an intense debate about the phenomenon of ‘governance’. The aim of this paper is to clarify the basic concepts that are at the heart of this debate, notably ‘governance’ and ‘modes of governance’. We argue that most contributions share a common concern for the relationship between state intervention and societal autonomy, but different strands of the literature highlight different facets of this continuum. Existing understandings may be classified according to whether they emphasize the politics, polity or policy dimensions of governance. We use these categories to present a structured overview of different dimensions of modes of governance as they may be found in the literature. In this context, we argue that the classification of modes of governance as ‘old’ or ‘new’ is of little analytical value. Moving from single dimensions to systematic classification schemes and typologies of modes of governance, we highlight a number of shortcomings of existing schemes and suggest an approach that could avoid these weaknesses. As a first step in this approach, we take a closer look at different policy properties of governance and develop a systematic typology of four modes of governance in the policy dimension: coercion, voluntarism, targeting and framework regulation.
篇名 Introduction: Negotiation and policy-making in the European Uinon- processes, system and order
作者 Ole Elgström and Michael Smith
出處 Journal of European Public Policy 7:5 Special Issue: 673-683
摘要 This Special Issue of the Journal of European Public Policy is devoted to a phenomenon that is perbasive in the European integration projict: negotiation. It is apparent from a review of the literature on integration and policy-making in the European Union that a great deal of it deals more or less explicitly with the ways in which "inputs" are mediated by forms of negotiation to result in "outputs," and that understandings about negotiation, its rules, its procedures and its consequences, are central to the evolution of expectations and the perceived legitimacy of institutions.
So much is clear. But we are aware of the fact that unless conceptual and analytical boundaries are clearly established, it is possible to define almost everything that goes on in the EU as "negotiation." The word can become synonymous with the integration project itself, and as such it can lose its theoretical and policy utility. The concern of the articles gathered here is thus two-fold: first, to validate the "negotiation perspective" as a way of penetrating the workings of the EU in teh widest sense, and, second, to contribute to the furthering of negotiation analysis as a means of ordering our understanding of the European integtation project. The articles, in diverse ways, can be framed by three aspects of a 'negotiation perspective'. First they deal with negotiation as process. Second, they deal with negotiation as system. Finally, they deal with negotiation as order. We argue that each of these aspects of a 'negotiation perspective' contrubutes significantly to iur understanding of European integration and policy making of EU.
篇名 The open method of co-ordination and new governance patterns in the EU
作者 Susana Borra´s and Kerstin Jacobsson
出處 Journal of European Public Policy 11:2 April 2004: 185–208
摘要 The aim of this article is to establish an analytical framework for studying the impact of the open method of co-ordination (OMC) on three levels of political action within the EU, namely the policy, politics and polity. First, the article examines the novelties of the OMC vis-a`-vis the soft law tradition in the EU, and looks at how the three dominant logics of co-ordination are linked to diverse modes of the OMC. The subsequent sections focus on the potential impact of the OMC on the policy and politics dimensions of the EU. Theoretically inspired assumptions about policy learning and partial delegation of power are the driving forces behind the inquiry. The article then scrutinizes the potential constitutional dimension of the OMC. Finally, it discusses the theoretical challenges that the OMC poses for our understanding of the EU as a polity and the concept of integration.
出處 《歐美研究》第三十三卷第二期 (民國九十二年六月)，291-344
出處 政治科學論叢／第二十四期／民國94 年6 月／頁49∼76
摘要 本文嘗試以新發展之統合理論－多層次治理模式－解析持續變遷且複雜之歐盟獨特的政治體系。多層次治理途徑跳脫二分法思維來論述歐盟統合現象，如「政府間vs. 超國家」之辯證、「聯邦 vs. 主權」之選項，而自「超國家－國家－次國家－跨國家」四層次，分析歐盟政經統合之決策機制，以了解歐盟會員國際喪失部分主權又同時保有自主性之特殊現象。幾個面向將被提出討論：坽「國家」層次中，會員國對歐盟重要政策制定之掌控權及其限制；夌「超國家」層次中，歐盟機構在決策程序中之議程設定之影響力，及實質權限之擴增；奅「次國家」行為者挑戰傳統以「國家－政府」為權力中心之取向；妵另一新的趨勢則是「跨國家」行為者聯結互動，並且繞過國家層次，直接在「超國家」層次運作。
篇名 Explaining the constitutionalization of the European Union
作者 Berthold Rittberger and Frank Schimmelfennig
出處 Journal of European Public Policy 13:8 December 2006: 1148–1167
摘要 Parliamentarization and the institutionalization of human rights are two processes of constitutionalization in the EU that constitute a puzzle for explanations inspired by both rationalist and constructivist institutionalism. We propose to analyse these processes as strategic action in a community environment: community actors use the liberal democratic identity, values and norms that constitute the EU’s ethos strategically to put social and moral pressure on those community members that oppose the constitutionalization of the EU. Theoretically, this process will be most effective under conditions of high salience, legitimacy, and publicity.
篇名 These Boots Are Gonna Walk All Over You
作者 Anthony Coughlan
出處 The Brussel Journal (網路評論) 里斯本條約全文可從以下網址下載：http://eur-lex.europa.eu/JOHtml.do?uri=OJ:C:2007:306:SOM:EN:HTML
篇名 Regulatory strategies, delegation and European market integration
作者 Michelle Egan
出處 Journal of European Public Policy 5:3 September 1998: 485- 506
摘要 The shift in regulatory strategy that accompanied the single market program has enabled the EU to delegate responsibility for setting the rules governing market access to standard-setting bodies. In doing so, the new regulatory regime resulting from this delegation has enabled firms to become dominant players in the policy-making process. This article demonstrates that the resulting regulatory regime has not produced the expected outcomes since firms have been unable to overcome the same kinds of collective action problems that plagued the harmonization process. Using principal-agent analysis, the article highlights the resulting efforts to deal with the absence of common standards by discussing Community efforts to monitor, oversee and control the pace of European standardization. It then discusses the impact of such delegation upon European governance to demonstrate some of the problems brought about by the increasing use of ‘private actors’ in the policy-making process.
篇名 Europe’s market liberalization is a bad model for a global trade agenda
作者 Erik Jones
出處 Journal of European Public Policy 13:6 September 2006: 943–957
摘要 European Union (EU) policy-makers use the single European market as a model for extending the global trade liberalization agenda, specifically to encompass flanking issues ranging from environmental sustainability to labour market regulation to social protection. They thus seek to transform the traditional multilateral trade liberalization agenda into a more comprehensive framework for global economic integration. The problem is that the single market has succeeded primarily insofar as it is European and not global in scope. Although multilateral negotiations have reduced tariffs and quotas, they are much less successful at embracing a wider agenda. Three conclusions are suggested: global trade liberalization should focus on a shallow agenda of economic issues; any ‘deeper’ pattern encompassing labour market, social, and environmental concerns is more likely to succeed at the regional level (or in bilateral agreements); and the challenge for the future is to resolve disputes between national, bilateral, and regional institutions – perhaps best through the World Trade Organization (WTO).
篇名 The EU regulatory trade agenda and the quest for WTO enforcement
作者 Dirk De Bie`vre
出處 Journal of European Public Policy 13:6 September 2006: 851–866
摘要 The European Union (EU) has increasingly called for regulatory agreements in the World Trade Organization (WTO) in areas such as investment, competition, environment, and labour. Why has the EU attempted to satisfy such new demands by pursuing regulatory goals within the WTO rather than within other international organizations? I suggest two reasons for the EU’s choice of the WTO. First, the nature of issue linkage in international trade negotiations has changed from exclusive exchanges of market access to the exchange of market access for regulation. Owing to the diversity of domestic constituency demands and consensus decision-making, the EU is particularly reliant on such broad issue linkages. And second, judicialization and the possibility of cross-retaliation in the WTO have enhanced the credibility of WTO commitments, increasing the organization’s attractiveness for issue linkages across policy fields. I show how these two factors have contributed to the EU’s attempt to place regulatory issues on the agenda of the Doha Development Round.
篇名 The European Union as a conflicted trade power
作者 Sophie Meunier and Kalypso Nicolaidis
出處 Journal of European Public Policy 13:6 September 2006: 906–925
摘要 The EU is a formidable power in trade. Structurally, the sheer size of its market and its more than forty-year experience of negotiating international trade agreements have made it the most powerful trading bloc in the world. Much more problematically, the EU is also becoming a power through trade. Increasingly, it uses market access as a bargaining chip to obtain changes in the domestic arena of its trading partners, from labour standards to development policies, and in the international arena, from global governance to foreign policy. Is the EU up to its ambitions? This article examines the underpinnings of the EU’s power through trade across issue-areas and across settings (bilateral, inter-regional, global). It then analyses the major dilemmas associated with the exercise of trade power and argues that strategies of accommodation will need to be refined in each of these realms if the EU is to successfully transform its structural power into effective, and therefore legitimate, influence.
Internal & External
篇名 The EU and the new trade politics
作者 Alasdair R. Young and John Peterson
出處 Journal of European Public Policy 13:6 September 2006: 795–814
摘要 Over the past twenty years trade politics within the European Union (EU) have changed in three ways. First, the concerns of traditional trade actors have shifted to more ‘behind-the-border’ issues, especially regulation and investment. Second, new actors – parliaments, non-trade agencies, and non-governmental organizations – have become more engaged. Third, the leadership of the EU (and the United States) has been challenged by influential developing countries. The EU has responded to the new trade politics by advocating a ‘deep’ trade agenda: seeking multilateral agreements on the making of domestic rules. This response reflects the EU’s own experience of market integration. Where the new trade politics have affected EU policy it has been through changing views about the purposes and
priority of trade policy at the highest political levels, rather than more directly via interest group lobbying. While the EU has been unsuccessful in promoting its agenda within the World Trade Organization, it is pursuing it through other forums where its influence is greater.
篇名 The Euro between national and European identity
作者 Thomas Risse
出處 Journal of European Public Policy 10:4 August 2003: 487–505
摘要 We miss the significance of the advent of the Euro for European political, economic, and social order if we ignore its identity dimension. Money has always been a symbolic marker in nation-building efforts and is strongly related to collective national identities. This article makes two interrelated causal claims. On the one hand, the introduction of Euro bills and coins has already begun to affect Euroland citizens’ identification with the EU and Europe in general. The Euro makes Europe real and reifies it as a political order, since it provides a visible link from Brussels to the daily lives of the citizens. On the other hand, existing collective identities pertaining to the nation-state explain to a large degree how comfortable people feel using and dealing with the Euro. The variation in attitudes between the Italian enthusiasm for the Euro, the German ambivalence about it, and the widespread British opposition can be accounted for by the differences in collective understandings and identification patterns with the nation-state and Europe. In sum, the causal arrows from the Euro to collective identities run both ways.
出處 政治科學論叢／第二十九期／民國95 年9 月／頁9∼30
篇名 The demand-side politics of EU enlargement: democracy and the application for EU membership
作者 Walter Mattli and Thomas Pl¨umper
出處 Journal of European Public Policy 9:4 August 2002: 550–574
摘要 Most theoretical arguments about enlargement have sought to elucidate why the EU may have an interest in accepting CEECs. While these ‘supply-side’ arguments are essential building blocks of a comprehensive account of enlargement, they need to be complemented by a theory that seeks to understand the politics and economics of enlargement from a demand-side perspective. We show in a formal model how a transition country’s demand for EU membership relates to both regime type and its willingness to implement economic reforms. Especially, we argue that leaders in more democratic regimes had a greater incentive to push ahead with costly ‘institution-building reforms’ which, in effect, aligned their countries with EU rules and institutions. The impetus for continuing pro-integration regulatory reforms came from the greater electoral accountability of these leaders. We test this claim with a Cox continuous time survival model with time-dependent covariates. The results conrm the dominant impact of increasing political participation on the likelihood of an EU application.
篇名 Liberal community and enlargement: an event history analysis
作者 Frank Schimmelfennig
出處 Journal of European Public Policy 9:4 August 2002: 598–626
摘要 This article presents the . ndings of a statistical analysis of the major enlargement events of the European Union, NATO, and the Council of Europe – the establishment of institutionalized relations between the organization and outsider states, outsider states’ application for membership, accession, and exclusion or suspension of membership. It is designed to test the ‘liberal community hypothesis’about enlargement according to which the likelihood of these enlargement events depends on the degree to which states adhere to the constitutive liberal values and norms of these three regional organizations. The main results of the event history analysis corroborate the liberal community hypothesis: compliance with democratic standards is the only variable that is robustly signi. cant across different organizations, events, and time periods.
篇名 The struggle over EU enlargement: ahistorical materialist analysis of European integration
作者 Andreas Bieler
出處 Journal of European Public Policy 9:4 August 2002: 575–597
摘要 This article argues with the help of a neo-Gramscian perspective that neo-liberal restructuring is the social purpose underlying Austria’s and Sweden’s accession to the EU in 1995 as well as future enlargements towards Central and Eastern Europe. The way in which enlargement has come about has differed, however. On the one hand, class struggle occurred mainly at the Austrian and Swedish national level. While a historical bloc in favour of EU membership was established in Austria by internationally oriented capital and labour, Swedish transnational capital and labour only formed a strong pro-EU alliance, because transnational capital favoured the EU for its neo-liberal restructuring, while transnational labour hoped to regain control over capital at a higher level. On the other hand, neo-liberal restructuring in Central and Eastern Europe has to be secured externally via EU membership, based on an alliance between Central and Eastern European state ´elites and transnational capital, represented by the Commission and the European Round Table of Industrialists.
篇名 Scandinavia and Switzerland: small, successful and stubborn towards the EU
作者 Sieglinde Gst¨ohl
出處 Journal of European Public Policy 9:4 August 2002: 529–549
摘要 Economic theory of integration expects small states and highly industrialized states to be more likely to integrate than larger or less advanced countries. Why then, did Norway, Sweden and Switzerland choose for a long time not to join the European Union? Existing political economy approaches cannot fully explain this stubbornness because they neglect the ‘hidden’ impact of national identities. Constructivist approaches, in turn, offer insights on identity-related variables but fail to assess tangible bene. ts. This article argues that economic incentives for EU membership coexist with and are often dominated by domestic and geo-historical constraints. Hence, both material interests and ideational factors are necessary to explain reluctant integration policies.
篇名 Theorizing EU enlargement: research focus, hypotheses, and the state of research
作者 Frank Schimmelfennig and Ulrich Sedelmeier
出處 Journal of European Public Policy 9:4 August 2002: 500–528
摘要 Despite its indisputable political relevance, the enlargement of the EU has suffered from a theoretical neglect in studies of European integration. While theoretically informed studies have emerged recently, this literature suffers from a predominant focus on single cases and from not being linked to the more general study of international organizations in the social sciences. This article aims to structure the emerging debate in order to generate more generalizable and cumulative insights. First, we de. ne enlargement as a process of gradual and formal horizontal institutionalization. We identify key dependent variables of a so-de. Ned enlargement, for which we propose comparative research strategies. Second, we draw on two basic approaches to the analysis of international organizations – rationalist and sociological or constructivist institutionalism – to derive core hypotheses on the conditions of enlargement. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of these theoretical approaches in structuring the debate by giving an overview of the state of research on EU enlargement.
篇名 European Foreign Policy: A Collective Policy or a Policy of ‘Converging Parallels’?
作者 COSTANZA MUSU*
出處 European Foreign Affairs Review 8: 35–49, 2003.
摘要 The main objective of this paper is to conduct an analysis of two opposite trends that are clearly identifiable in the process of European political integration and, especially, in European foreign policy: a) the convergence of the Member States’ policies and b) the concurrent persistence of profound differences between national policies.
篇名 The framing of European foreign and security policy: towards a postmodern policy framework?
作者 Michael Smith
出處 Journal of European Public Policy 10:4 August 2003: 556–575
摘要 This article explores the evolution of the common foreign and
security policy (CFSP) and the common European security and defence policy (CESDP), taken to represent European foreign and security policy, with an emphasis on the continuous reframing of policy within a changing ‘foreign policy space’. Having identified the key phases in the evolution of this European foreign policy space, the article then pursues two general aims: first, to establish how far this evolution reflects the interaction of ideas, institutions and policies; second, to assess the significance of a number of key ‘drivers’ common to many areas of policy within the EU – the search for legitimacy, the preferences of member states and the desire for environmental stabilization. On the basis of this exploration, the article argues that it is possible to discern the emergence of a ‘post-modern’ or ‘extra-national’ foreign policy in the EU, which has significant echoes of policymaking in other areas of EU activity.
篇名 ESDP Police Missions: Meaning, Context and Operational Challenges
作者 MICHAEL MERLINGEN AND RASA OSTRAUSKAITE
出處 European Foreign Affairs Review 10: 215-235, 2005.
摘要 The article proceeds as follows. In the next section, we clear the ground for our evaluation of ESDP police missions by clarifying the key concepts: policing and police aid. We make the case for going beyond the narrow conception of policing that underpins much of the research on aid in support of police reforms. Next, we contextualize EU policing by briefiy sketching out the role of international assistance for rule of law and police reforms in the post-cold war era. We show that the EU is a latecomer to this form of international security governance. In the section that follows, we trace the evolution of ESDP police capabilities before briefly describing the two operations in Bosnia and Macedonia. This discussion sets the stage for a critical look at the two missions. Drawing, notably, on insights from police studies and research on peacebuilding, we highlight a series of generic, rather than case-specific, challenges faced by the two missions, which have so far been neglected in evaluations provided by the Council Secretariat, Member States and independent policy analysts, and we suggest ways to overcome them.
篇名 The New Member States and the Making of EU Foreign Policy
作者 GEOFFREY EDWARDS
出處 European Foreign Affairs Review 11: 143-162, 2006.
摘要 This willingness and ability on the part of the CEECs to adapt to the EU has been reinforced, not least given the turbulence in the international system over the past five years, by attitudes towards NATO and the extent to which NATO, qua the United States, has or has not been pursuing alternative policies that demand prior or deeper loyalties. Divisions over Iraq have been particularly difficult in challenging Atlantic solidarity. Before the invasion and before EU membership, such choices were not demanded; nor were they appreciated when they were. The new members remain heavily preoccupied by their geostrategic position as well as their recent past, making for a particular sense of solidarity in terms of territorial defence at a time when NATO under US leadership has been more concerned with the global 'war on terrorism'. The result has been unwelcome tensions in the relationship with the USA and NATO on the one hand as well as the EU on the other.
篇名 Building an international identity: the EU and extraterritorial competition policy
作者 Chad Damro
出處 Journal of European Public Policy 8:2 April 2001: 208–226
摘要 The 1997 Boeing–McDonnell Douglas (BMD) merger is a remarkable case of international state–market interaction whereby the European Union (EU) intervened in a merger between two foreign .rms. This article offers an initial investigation into the development of the EU’s international identity via the extraterritorial application of competition policy in the BMD case. Evidence from the case suggests that the EU’s exercise of extraterritorial competition policy derives from reasonable objections to the merger, the practical desire to ensure market access opportunities for European .rms and the need to enhance Union credibility in the eyes of member states. Evidence further suggests that when the EU’s interests are exercised against a non-Union third party, the EU has greater opportunity to build an international identity. The article also assesses Union responses to the potentially destabilizing effects of extraterritorial competition policy by establishing bilateral agreements, lobbying for a multilateral regime, and encouraging informa co-operation.
篇名 The European Union as a Global "Civilian Power": Development Cooperation in EU-Latin American Relations
作者 Christian Freres
出處 Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, Vol. 42, No. 2, Special Issue: The European Union and Latin America: Changing Relations. (Summer, 2000), pp.v+63-85.
摘要 The European Union's attempts to strengthen ties with Latin America relate to a broader international strategy of demonstrating that it is a "global player" and attaining the image of a "civilian power." Yet many observers suspect that European aid is simply instrumental to trade and investment promotion and other interests. They question whether the EU's strong position as a donor in Latin America means that Latin America is strongly important to the EU. This article reviews the history, context, and latest trends in EU aid to Latin America, then looks at the prospects for a biregional partnership.
10. 環境 人權
篇名 A new approach to EU environmental policy-making? The Auto-Oil I Programme
作者 Axel Friedrich, Matthias Tappe and RŸdiger K.W. Wurzel
出處 Journal of European Public Policy 7:4 October 2000: 593Ð 612
摘要 The Commission’s Auto-Oil I Programme was initially hailed as a model for future environmental legislation. It constituted a departure from previous European Union car emission policy-making based on the incremental tightening of car emission limits in line with the advancement of the best available technology. The Auto-Oil I Programme was developed within a ‘tripartite dialogue’ between the Commission and the automobile and oil industries. It aimed at achieving environmental quality objectives through the adoption of the most cost-effective regulation. This article explains why the Commission’s ‘new approach’ was rejected by the Environmental Council and the European Parliament which adopted significantly more stringent standards within the codecision procedure.
篇名 Environmental policy and social exclusion
作者 Wyn Grant
出處 Journal of European Public Policy 8:1 February 2001: 82–100
摘要 This article reports the main results of a four-country comparative analysis of the relationship between social exclusion and environmental attitudes and behaviour. Five socially excluded groups were studied through secondary data analysis and case studies. Norms of environmental behaviour tended to be universalized in Germany and Switzerland with much greater differentiation of the socially excluded in Britain and Greece. There were also signi.cant differences between the socially excluded groups with lone parents likely to be particularly receptive to appropriate policy measures. Policy measures are reviewed in relation to the concept of empowerment. Environmental policy could be more effective if it was sensitized to the differential effect of measures on social groups.
篇名 The international sources of policy convergence: explaining the spread of environmental policy innovations
作者 Per-Olof Busch and Helge Jo¨rgens
出處 Journal of European Public Policy 12:5 October 2005: 860–884
摘要 How do international processes, actors and institutions contribute to domestic policy change and cross-national policy convergence? Scholars in the fields of international relations and comparative politics have identified a wide array of convergence mechanisms operating at the international or transnational level. In order to categorize this wide array of possible causes of policy convergence, we propose a typology of three broad classes of mechanisms: (1) the co-operative harmonization of domestic practices by means of international legal agreements or supranational law; (2) the coercive imposition of political practices by means of economic, political or even military threat, intervention or conditionality; and (3) the interdependent but uncoordinated diffusion of practices by means of cross-national imitation, emulation or learning. We illustrate and substantiate this claim through the empirical analysis of the international spread of three different kinds of policy innovation: national environmental policy plans and sustainable development strategies, environmental ministries and agencies, and feed-in tariffs and quotas for the promotion of renewable electricity.
篇名 Normative by nature? The role of coherence in justifying the EU’s external human rights policy
作者 Marika Lerch and Guido Schwellnus
出處 Journal of European Public Policy 13:2 March 2006: 304–321
摘要 In order to assess the EU’s ‘normative power’, the article compares the justification of the EU’s external policy regarding the death penalty and minority protection, respectively. Starting from the assumption that policies can be justified by utility- , value- or rights-based arguments, it reasons that in complex argumentations all types are deployed, so that coherence between different justifications is an important legitimizing factor. In the death penalty case, EU policy developed in line with the requirements of argumentative coherence, while in the case of minority protection, the shift from utility- to value-based arguments exposed incoherence between the internal and external application of the policy. This incoherence triggered a discursive ‘realignment strategy’, linking the external policy back to established EU norms. However, this does not suspend the tension between the different internal and external approaches to minority protection, thereby diminishing the EU’s normative power in this issue area.