課程資訊
課程名稱
環境心理學
Environmental Psychology 
開課學期
103-2 
授課對象
工學院  建築與城鄉研究所  
授課教師
畢恆達 
課號
BP7039 
課程識別碼
544 M3030 
班次
 
學分
全/半年
半年 
必/選修
選修 
上課時間
星期二2,3,4(9:10~12:10) 
上課地點
工綜313 
備註
限碩士班以上
總人數上限:50人 
Ceiba 課程網頁
http://ceiba.ntu.edu.tw/1032BP7039_envpspy 
課程簡介影片
 
核心能力關聯
核心能力與課程規劃關聯圖
課程大綱
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課程概述

一、課 名:環境心理學
二、課程編號:544 M3030(103學年度第二學期)
三、學 分 數:3
四、授課老師:畢恆達 hdbih@.ntu.edu.tw 33665981
http://www.bp.ntu.edu.tw/WebUsers/hdbih/index.htm
五、上課時間及地點:每週二第 234 節(9:10─12:00),工313教室
六、課程概要:
儘管環境心理學已有約五十年的歷史,漸漸也與社會/發展/工商/生態心理學等相互滲透,但是在台灣仍然沒有受到太多的重視。台灣的心理學界,認知、實驗、社會等心理學仍然是主流,臨床、組織等位於邊緣,環境心理學則幾乎在心理學系裡找不到課程。相對來說,建築系倒是有些老師會講授環境心理學、建築心理學或者環境行為研究課程。
環境心理學的用詞與定義分殊,每本教科書隨著其對於科學的界定,而涵蓋不同的理論取向與內容。最簡單而通用的定義是,有關於人的心理經驗/行為與其所處實質/社會/文化環境關係的研究。兩個關鍵字是環境與心理。然則,有的偏重於實體空間,有的含括空間的社會/政經條件;有的偏重外顯可觀察的行為,有的涵蓋抽象的意義層面。有人認為環境心理學是心理學的一個分支(sub-discipline),有人認為它是對於傳統心理學的批判(critique),有人認為是問題導向的跨學科(problem-oriented)。
本課程將探討環境心理學發展的歷史、理論與經驗研究,以及它在環境規劃與設計上的應用。其所涵蓋的領域,可以從四個向度來組織:(1)人:性別、種族、階級、年齡世代、行動能力、角色(如經理 vs. 工人、醫師/病人/訪客)等。(2)空間:物、住宅、辦公室、購物、公共空間、KTV、醫院、災害、自然等。(3)心理/社會/文化行為:知覺、認知、壓力、空間行為等。(4)時間與歷史向度。每一個領域又都涵蓋理論、方法、經驗研究與設計應用。
環境心理學的範圍很廣,非一學期的課程所能窮盡。課程的安排,將先介紹其發展的歷史脈絡、基本定義、文獻資源等。接著介紹與環境/行為較為有關的研究方法。然後,討論一些環境心理學的核心概念,以及設計應用。修課的同學除了每週撰寫讀書心得之外,還有兩類作業要求:(1)課堂文獻報告(2)選定一個空間(如總圖書館、小福廣場、中正紀念堂..)或一種空間(如廁所、公車、捷運標示系統…)進行田野觀察研究,最好能夠運用所學到的環境心理學理論概念,期末時輪流報告研究結果。

Moore, G. T., Tuttle, D. P., & Howell, S. C. (1985). Environmental design research directions: Process and prospects. New York: Praeger.

2/24 環境心理學歷史
甚麼是環境心理學?它在怎樣的社會脈絡與學術自我反省的條件下開始發展?簡介環境心理學有關的學術資源。
Moore, G. T. (1987). Environment and behavior research in North America: History, developments and unresolved issues. In D. Stokols & I. Altman (Eds.), Handbook of environmental psychology (pp. 1359-1410). New York: Wiley.
Giuliani, M. V., & Scopelliti, M. (2009). Empirical research in environmental psychology: Past, present, and future. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 29(3), 375-386.
畢恆達(1989)〈環境心理學研究資料引介〉。《國立台灣大學建築與城鄉研究學報》,4,115-136。

3/3 環境心理學理論
Altman, I., & Rogoff, B. (1987). World views in psychology: Trait, interactional, organismic, and transactional perspectives. In D. Stokols & I. Altman (Eds.), Handbook of environmental psychology (pp. 7-40). New York: Wiley.
Gifford, R. (2014). The nature and scope of environmental psychology. In Environmental psychology: Principles and practice (5th ed.) (pp. 1-20). Colville, WA: Optimal Books.
Bell, P. A., Greene, T. C., Fisher, J. D., & Baum, A. (2001). Theories of environment-behavior relationships. In Environmental psychology (5th ed.) (pp. 97-135). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College.
Nagar, D. (2006). Methodological issues and theoretical perspectives in environmental psychology. In Environmental psychology (pp. 52-93). New Delhi: Concept.
Kopec, D. (2012). Foundational theories of environmental psychology. In Environmental psychology for design (2nd ed.) (pp. 17-34). New York: Fairchild Books.

3/10, 3/17 環境心理學方法
Zeisel, J. (2006). Inquiry by design: Environment/ Behavior/ Neuroscience in architecture, interiors, landscape, and planning (rev. ed.). New York: Norton.(第8章 Observing Physical Traces,頁159-190;第9章 Observing Environmental Behavior,頁191-226)
Hansen, W. B., & Altman, I. (1976). Decorating personal places: A descriptive analysis. Environment and Behavior, 8(4), 491-504.
Cosco, N. G., Moore, R. C., & Islam, M. Z. (2010). Behavior mapping: A method for linking preschool physical activity and outdoor design. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 42(3), 513-519. (行為圖示法)
Larson, J. S., Bradlow, E., & Fader, P. (2005). An exploratory look at shopping paths. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 22, 395-414. (行為圖示法)
Karp, D. A. (1973). Hiding in pornographic bookstores: A reconsideration of the nature of urban anonymity. Urban Life, 1, 427-451.(觀察法)
Middlemist, R. D., Knowles, E. S., & Matter, C. F. (1976). Personal space invasions in the lavatory: Suggestive evidence for arousal. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33(5), 541-546. (arousal theory、田野實驗法)
Baum, A., & Davis, G. E. (1980). Reducing the stress of high-density living: An architectural intervention. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38(3), 471-481. (田野實驗法)
Davis, B. E. (2011). Rooftop hospital gardens for physical therapy: A post-occupancy evaluation. Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 4(3), 14-43.(POE使用後評估)
Ziller, R. C., Rorer, B., Combs, J., & Lewis, D. (1983). The psychological niche: The auto-photographic study of self-environment interaction. In D. A. Krauss & J. L. Fryrear (Eds.), Phototheraphy in mental health (pp. 95-115). Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.(照片分析)
Cooper Marcus, C. (1979). Environmental autobiography. Berkeley, CA: University of California, Institute of Urban and Regional Development Working Paper No. 301.(環境自傳)
Haslam, N. (2012). Seat up or down? In Psychology in the bathroom (pp. 136-148). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Rathje, W. & Murphy, R.(1994)《垃圾之歌》。台北:時報文化。

3/24 環境認知
一個關鍵性實驗,讓空間認知從行為論轉向認知論。Kevin Lynch的都市意象,則改變了此後都市規劃的思維與表現法。醫院、車站等是分秒必爭的空間,可是基本的找路,仍然是大問題。台大校總區幅員廣闊,近來雖然為校內道路命名,其實真的能夠辨識路名的人不多,那如何指路?校內的指標系統與平面圖又好不好用?
Bell, P. A., Greene, T. C., Fisher, J. D., & Baum, A. (2001). Environmental cognition. In Environmental psychology (5th ed.) (pp. 68-96). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College.
Gifford, R. (2014). Environmental perception and spatial cognition. In Environmental psychology: Principles and practice (5th ed.) (pp. 21-53). Colville, WA: Optimal Books. (有電子檔)
Tolman, E. C. (1948). Cognitive maps in rats and men. Psychological Review, 55, 189-208.
Lynch, K. (1960). The image of the city. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Lynch, K. (1990). Reconsidering The Image of the City. In T. Banerjee & M. Southworth (Eds.), City sense and city design: Writings and projects of Kevin Lynch (pp. 247-256). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Milgram, S., & Jodelet, D. (1976). Psychological maps of Paris. In H. M. Proshansky, W. H. Ittelson & L. G. Rivlin (Eds.), Environmental psychology: People and their physical settings (pp. 104-124). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Kitchin, R. M. (1994). Cognitive maps: What are they and why study them? Journal of Environmental Psychology, 14(1), 1-19.
Carpman, J. R., & Grant, M. A. (2002). Wayfinding: A broad view. In R. B. Bechtel & A. Churchman (Eds.), Handbook of environmental psychology (pp. 427-442). New York: Wiley.
Heft, H. (2013). Environment, cognition, and culture: Reconsidering the cognitive map. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 33(1), 14-25.
Tati, J. [Director] (1968). Playtime. 片段

3/31 空間行為學
Altman, I. (1975). The environment and social behavior: Privacy, personal space, territory, crowding. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Cherulnik, P. D. (1993). Sociopetal space in psychiatric hospitals. In Applications of environment-behavior research (pp. 131-152). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bell, P. A., Greene, T. C., Fisher, J. D., & Baum, A. (2001). Personal space and territoriality. In Environmental psychology (5th ed.) (pp. 251-291). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College.
Gifford, R. (2014). Personal space and territoriality/Crowding and privacy. In Environmental psychology: Principles and practice (5th ed.) (pp. 123-212). Colville, WA: Optimal Books.(有電子檔)

4/7 都市開放空間
從William H. Whyte談起,他的團隊長期在紐約的都市小公園/開放空間進行觀察紀錄與分析。我們可以看環境心理學家的研究如何可以具體的成為法令條文的基礎,形塑了都市公共空間的具體設計。
Whyte, W. H. (1980). The social life of small urban spaces. Washington, D.C.: The Conservation Foundation.
Whyte, W. H. (Director) (1981). The social life of small urban spaces [video]. Los Angeles: Direct Cinema Limited.
Whyte, W. H. (1988). City: Rediscovering the center. New York: Anchor Books.
Kayden, J. S., The New York City Department of City Planning, & The Municipal Art society of New York. (2000). Privately owned public space: The New York experience. New York: Wiley.
Cherulnik, P. D. (1993). Exxon minipark redesign. In Applications of environment-behavior research (pp. 155-174). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Miller, K. F. (2007). Art or lunch? Redesigning a public for Federal Plaza. In Designs on the public: The private lives of New York's public spaces (pp. 23-44). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. (傾斜之弧的爭議)

4/14 空間與犯罪
Newman, O. (1972). Defensible space: Crime prevention through urban design. New York: Collier Books.
Merry, S. E. (1981). Defensible space undefended: Social factors in crime control through environmental design. Urban Affairs Quarterly, 16(4), 397-422.
Cherulnik, P. D. (1993). Defensible-space modifications at Clason Point Gardens. In Applications of environment-behavior research (pp. 197-220). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Crowe, T. D. (2000). Crime prevention through environmental design: Applications of architectural design and space management concepts (2nd ed.). Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Schneider, R. H., & Kitchen, T. (2007). Crime prevention and the built environment. New York: Routledge.
White, G. F. (2006). Crime prevention through environmental design: How investing in physical and social capital makes communities safer. Lewiston, NY: The Edwin Mellen Press.
Wekerle, G., & Whitzman, C. (1995). Safe cities: Guidelines for planning, design, and management. Ontario: Nelson.
Kelling, G. L. (2001). 'Broken Windows' and the culture wars: A response to selected critiques. In R. Matthews & J. Pitts (Eds.), Crime, disorder and community safety: A new agenda? (pp. 120-144). New York: Routledge.

4/21 街頭塗鴉
Austin, J. (2001). Taking the train: How graffiti art became an urban crisis in New York City. New York: Columbia University Press. (第2, 3章,38-106頁)(電子檔)

4/28 家的意義
Valentine, G. (2001). The home. In Social geographies: Space and society (pp. 63-104). Harlow, England: Prentice Hall.
Kopec, D. (2012). The environment called home. In Environmental psychology for design (2nd ed.) (pp. 175-194). New York: Fairchild Books.
Cooper Marcus, C. (1995). House as a mirror of self: Exploring the deeper meaning of home. Berkeley, CA: Conari Press. (家屋,自我的一面鏡子)
Young, I. M.(2007)〈房子與家:女性主義主題變奏曲〉。《像女孩那樣丟球》(頁213-272)。臺北:商周。
Gilman, C. P.(2011)《黃壁紙》。臺北:逗點文創結社。
Lessing, D. (2003)〈十九號房〉。《一封未投郵的情書》(頁49-92)。臺北:一方。
陳姿瑾(2012)〈自己的房間:當代臺灣女性小說中公寓/家的辯證〉。梅家玲(編)《臺灣研究新視界:青年學者觀點》(頁183-228)。臺北:麥田。
電影:「時時刻刻」片段

5/5 社區(認同)(老人)
Fried, M. (1963). Grieving for a lost home. In J. Duhl (Ed.), The urban condition: People and policy in the metropolis (pp. 151-171). New York: Basic Books.
Fried, M. (2000). Continuities and discontinuities of place. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 20, 193-205.
Rowles, G. D. (1978). Prisoners of space? Exploring the geographical experience of older people. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Manzo, L. C., & Devine-Wright, P. (Eds.). (2014). Place attachment: Advances in theory, methods and applications. New York: Routledge.(台大有電子書)(chap. 11, Fullilove)
黃孫權(2012)《綠色推土機:九零年代的臺北的違建、公園、自然房地產與制度化地景》。新北市:獨立媒體。
楊長苓(2003)《銘印、協商與地抗的空間實踐:由康樂里非自願拆遷重思都市規劃與建築歷史》。國立臺灣大學建築與城鄉研究所博士論文。
欒龍宇(2003)《消失的康樂里:臺北市康樂里拆除後居民生活網絡之研究》。國立臺北科技大學建築與都市設計研究所碩士論文。
參考電影:蘋果的滋味、陳材根和他的鄰居們、我的家在康樂里

5/12 園藝治療
園藝治療近來也日漸受到重視,它是透過人與植物的互動過程中訓練及修復受傷的身心。園藝工作最大的好處是,它不是一項靜態的工作,在照顧植物的過程中,照顧者會一直感覺到有事情發生:植物發新葉、新芽、花開、花落,生生不息。當感覺到有生命需要自己來照顧的時候,能夠增加對自我的肯定。
Lewis, C. A.(1996/2008)《園藝治療入門》(Green nature/human nature: The meaning of plants in our lives)。臺北:洪葉文化。
Louv, R.(2009)《失去山林的孩子:拯救大自然缺失症兒童》。臺北:野人文化。
黃盛璘(2007)《走進園藝治療的世界》。臺北:心靈工坊。

5/19 兒童遊戲場
請學生調查臺灣校園/公園的兒童遊戲場,主要的類型/設計有哪些
Hayward, D. G., Rothenberg, M., & Beasley, R. R. (1974). Children's play and urban playground environments: A comparison of traditional, contemporary, and adventure playground types. Environment and Behavior, 6(2), 131-168. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001391657400600201
Weinstein, C. S., & Pinciotti, P. (1988). Changing schoolyard: Intentions, design decisions, and behavioral outcomes. Environment and Behavior, 20(3), 345-371.
Moore, R. C., Goltsman, S. M., & Iacofano, D. S. (Eds.). (1992). Play for all guidelines: Planning, design and management of outdoor play settings for all children. Berkeley, CA: Communications.

5/26 廁所作為性別隔離空間
請學生調查臺灣的無性別廁所設計
Browne, K. (2004). Genderism and the bathroom problem: (Re)materialising sexed sites, (re)creating sexed bodies. Gender, Place and Culture, 11(3), 331-346.
Kogan, T. S. (1997). Transsexuals and critical gender theory: The possibility of a restroom labeled "other". Hastings Law Journal, 48(6), 1223-1255.
Jeffreys, S. (2014). The politics of the toilet: A feminist response to the campaign to 'degender' a women's space. Women's Studies International Forum, 45, 42-51.
彭渰雯(2005)從女廁運動到無性別廁所:一個參與者的反省。畢恆達等(編)性別與空間之教學、研究與政策十年回顧與前瞻(頁68-81)。臺北:臺灣大學建築與城鄉研究所性別與空間研究室。

6/2 醫療空間:環境心理學的應用
Fornara, F., & Andrade, C. C. (2012). Health care environments. In S. D. Clayton (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of environmental and conservation psychology (pp. 295-315). New York: Oxford University Press.
Andrade, C. C., & Devlin, A. S. (2015). Stress reduction in the hospital room: Applying Ulrich's theory of supportive design. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 41, 125-134.
Kopec, D. (2012). Health care environments. In Environmental psychology for design (2nd ed.) (pp. 257-276). New York: Fairchild Books.
Shumaker, S. A., & Reizenstein, J. E. (1982). Environmental factors affecting inpatient stress in acute care hospitals. In G. W. Evans (Ed.), Environmental stress (pp. 179-223). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Sternbert, E. M. (2009). Healing spaces: The science of place and well-being. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (台大電子書)
The Center for Health Design http://www.healthdesign.org/chd
McCullough, C. S. (Ed.). (2010). Evidence-based design for healthcare facilities. Indianapolis, IN: Sigma Theta Tau International.(台大電子書)
Huelat, B. J.(2007)《療癒環境:身心靈的健康照護環境設計》。臺北:五南。
Elijah-Barnwell, S. A. (2008). Healing through design: Nursing perceptions of the health care environment. The University of Nebraska - Lincoln Educational Studies. Ph.D.: 150. (台大電子書)

6/9 臉書(虛擬空間)(app交友軟體)
Wilson, R. E., Gosling, S. D., & Graham, L. T. (2012). A review of Facebook research in the social sciences. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7(3), 203-220.

06/16 同學期末報告
06/23 同學期末報告

期末作業舉例
1 道路施工工地的「假人」:如何生產出來的?有不同的年齡、性別嗎?工人與「假人」的關係(穿著、取名字、互動)。(鐘聖雄(2012)〈它們〉。公視新聞議題中心。http://pnn.pts.org.tw/main/?p=44778)
2 卡啦OK
Lum, C. M. K. (1998). The karaoke dilemma: On the interaction between collectivism and individualism in the karaoke space. In T. Mitsui & S. Hosokawa (Eds.), Karaoke around the world: Global technology, local singing (pp. 161-171). New York: Routledge.
3 遭小偷與家的意義轉變
Korosec-Serfaty, P., & Bolitt, D. (1986). Dwelling and the experience of burglary. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 6, 329-344.
4 兩人同床而眠如何可能
Rosenblatt, P. C. (2006). Two in a bed: The social system of couple bed sharing. Albany: State University of New York Press.
5 當潔癖遇上骯髒鬼
Kaufmann, J.-C. (1998). Dirty linen: Couples and their laundry. London: Middlesex University Press.
6 計程車司機/公車司機的尿尿地圖
如果連續工作八個小時,要如何解決身體的需求?與城市空間如何互動?

 

課程目標
123 
課程要求
待補 
預期每週課後學習時數
 
Office Hours
 
參考書目
待補 
指定閱讀
待補 
評量方式
(僅供參考)
   
課程進度
週次
日期
單元主題
第1週
2/24  課程簡介 
第2週
3/03  環境心理學理論與歷史 
第3週
3/10  環境心理學方法一 
第4週
3/17  環境心理學方法二 
第5週
3/24  環境認知 
第6週
3/31  空間行為學 
第7週
4/07  都市開放空間 
第8週
4/14  空間與犯罪 
第9週
4/21  街頭塗鴉 
第10週
4/28  家的意義 
第11週
5/05  社區 
第12週
5/12  園藝治療 
第13週
5/19  兒童遊戲場 
第14週
5/26  廁所(性別隔離) 
第15週
6/02  醫療空間 
第16週
6/09  虛擬空間:臉書 
第17週
6/16  6/16, 6/23 期末報告